Automated anatomical labeling facilitates the diagnostic process for physicians and radiologists. One of the challenges in automated anatomical labeling problems is the robustness to handle the large individual variability inherited in human anatomy. A novel deep neural network framework, referred to Tree Labeling Network (TreeLab-Net), is proposed to resolve this problem in this work.
A multi-layer perceptron (MLP) encoder network and a bidirectional tree-structural long short-term memory (Bi-TreeLSTM) are combined to construct the TreeLab-Net. Vessel spatial locations and directions are selected as features, where a spherical coordinate transform is utilized to normalize vessel spatial variations. The dataset includes 436 coronary computed tomography angiography images. Tenfold cross-validation is performed for evaluation.
The precision–recall curve of TreeLab-Net shows that the four main branch classes, LM, LAD, LCX and RCA, have the area under the curve (AUC) higher than 97%. Other major side branch classes, D, OM, and R-PLB, also have AUC higher than 90%. Comparing with four other methods (i.e., AdaBoost, MLP, Up-to-Down and Down-to-Up TreeLSTM), the TreeLab-Net achieves higher F1 scores with less topological errors.
The TreeLab-Net is able to capture the characteristics of tree structures by learning the spatial and topological dependencies of blood vessels effectively. The results demonstrate that TreeLab-Net is able to yield competitive performances on a large dataset with great variance among subjects.
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TreeLab-Net is a general encoding–forecasting structure so that other deep neural networks can also be adopted as a building block for more complex structures; for example, CNN can be used as the encoder for more complex image input.
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The work received supports from Shenzhen Municipal Government under the Grant KQTD2016112809330877.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in these studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
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Wu, D., Wang, X., Bai, J. et al. Automated anatomical labeling of coronary arteries via bidirectional tree LSTMs. Int J CARS 14, 271–280 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11548-018-1884-6
- Anatomical labeling
- Coronary artery
- Coronary computed tomography angiography
- Spherical coordinate transform
- Tree-structural long short-term memory
- Deep learning