Multi-ray medical ultrasound simulation without explicit speckle modelling
- 118 Downloads
To develop a medical ultrasound (US) simulation method using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) as the input that offers a compromise between low-cost ray-based and high-cost realistic wave-based simulations.
The proposed method uses a novel multi-ray image formation approach with a virtual phased array transducer probe. A domain model is built from input MR images. Multiple virtual acoustic rays are emerged from each element of the linear transducer array. Reflected and transmitted acoustic energy at discrete points along each ray is computed independently. Simulated US images are computed by fusion of the reflected energy along multiple rays from multiple transducers, while phase delays due to differences in distances to transducers are taken into account. A preliminary implementation using GPUs is presented.
Preliminary results show that the multi-ray approach is capable of generating view point-dependent realistic US images with an inherent Rician distributed speckle pattern automatically. The proposed simulator can reproduce the shadowing artefacts and demonstrates frequency dependence apt for practical training purposes. We also have presented preliminary results towards the utilization of the method for real-time simulations.
The proposed method offers a low-cost near-real-time wave-like simulation of realistic US images from input MR data. It can further be improved to cover the pathological findings using an improved domain model, without any algorithmic updates. Such a domain model would require lesion segmentation or manual embedding of virtual pathologies for training purposes.
KeywordsUltrasound Simulator Multi-ray-based US simulation MR-based body model US training
This work was supported in part by TÜBİTAK TEYDEB 1505 Programme under Grant # 5130002 and in part by the Turkish Ministry of Development under the TAM Project No. DPT2007K120610. The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr. Atadan Tunacı, Assoc. Prof. Burçin Ünlü, S. Girgin, O. Mat and F. Büyükkeçeci for their support.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Anonymized retrospective data was used for the experiments. No patient data were acquired for this study; hence, formal consent is not required.
- 1.Jensen JA (1996) FIELD: a program for simulating ultrasound systems. In: 10th Nordicbaltic conference on biomedical imaging, pp 351–353Google Scholar
- 2.Camara M, Mayer E, Darzi A, Pratt P (2017) Simulation of patient-specific deformable ultrasound imaging in real time. In: Cardoso J, Arbel T, Tavares JMRS, Aylward S, Li S, Boctor E, Fichtinger G, Cleary K, Freeman B, Kohli L, Shipley Kane D, Oetgen M, Pujol S (eds) Imaging for patient-customized simulations and systems for point-of-care ultrasound. BIVPCS 2017, POCUS 2017. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 10549. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
- 8.Kutter O, Karamalis A, Wein W, Navab N (2009) A GPU-based framework for simulation of medical ultrasound. In: SPIE medical imaging of the international society for optics and photonics, p 726117Google Scholar
- 10.Reichl T, Passenger J, Acosta O, Salvado O (2009) Ultrasound goes GPU: real-time simulation using CUDA. In: SPIE medical imaging of the international society for optics and photonics, p 726116Google Scholar
- 11.Hostettler A, Forest C, Forgione A, Soler L, Marescaux J (2005) Real-time ultrasonography simulator based on 3D CT-scan images. Stud Health Technol Inf 111:191–193Google Scholar
- 16.Shams R, Hartley R, Navab N (2008) Real-Time simulation of medical ultrasound from CT images. In: Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention—MICCAI 2008. Springer, Berlin, pp 734–741Google Scholar