Advertisement

Anser EMT: the first open-source electromagnetic tracking platform for image-guided interventions

  • Herman Alexander Jaeger
  • Alfred Michael Franz
  • Kilian O’Donoghue
  • Alexander Seitel
  • Fabian Trauzettel
  • Lena Maier-Hein
  • Pádraig Cantillon-Murphy
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

Electromagnetic tracking is the gold standard for instrument tracking and navigation in the clinical setting without line of sight. Whilst clinical platforms exist for interventional bronchoscopy and neurosurgical navigation, the limited flexibility and high costs of electromagnetic tracking (EMT) systems for research investigations mitigate against a better understanding of the technology’s characterisation and limitations. The Anser project provides an open-source implementation for EMT with particular application to image-guided interventions.

Methods

This work provides implementation schematics for our previously reported EMT system which relies on low-cost acquisition and demodulation techniques using both National Instruments and Arduino hardware alongside MATLAB support code. The system performance is objectively compared to other commercial tracking platforms using the Hummel assessment protocol.

Results

Positional accuracy of 1.14 mm and angular rotation accuracy of \(0.04^{\circ }\) are reported. Like other EMT platforms, Anser is susceptible to tracking errors due to eddy current and ferromagnetic distortion. The system is compatible with commercially available EMT sensors as well as the Open Network Interface for image-guided therapy (OpenIGTLink) for easy communication with visualisation and medical imaging toolkits such as MITK and 3D Slicer.

Conclusions

By providing an open-source platform for research investigations, we believe that novel and collaborative approaches can overcome the limitations of current EMT technology.

Keywords

Electromagnetic tracking Open source Image guidance Image-guided surgery OpenIGTLink 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Irish Health Research Board (POR/2012/31), Science Foundation Ireland (15/TIDA/2846). This work was also supported by the European Union through the ERC starting Grant COMBIOSCOPY under the New Horizon Framework Programme Grant Agreement ERC-2015-StG-37960. The authors would also like to acknowledge the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, and the Institute of Image-Guided Surgery (IHU), Strasbourg, in supporting this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

This articles does not contain patient data.

References

  1. 1.
    Choi KY, Seo BR, Kim JH, Kim SH, Kim TS, Lee JK (2013) The usefulness of electromagnetic neuronavigation in the pediatric neuroendoscopic surgery. J Korean Neurosurg Soc 53(3):161–166CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cleary K, Peters TM (2010) Image-guided interventions. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 12:119–142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nardelli P, Jaeger A, OShea C, Cantillon-Murphy P, Kennedy MP (2016) Navigational bronchoscopy for early lung cancer: a road to therapy. Adv Therapy 33(4):580–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Franz AM, Haidegger T, Birkfellner W, Cleary K, Peters TM, Maier-Hein L (2014) Electromagnetic tracking in medicine-a review of technology, validation, and applications. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 33(8):1702–1725CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Franz AM, März K, Hummel J, Birkfellner W, Bendl R (2012) Electromagnetic tracking for us-guided interventions: standardized assessment of a new compact field generator. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 7(6):813–818CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lugez E, Sadjadi H, Pichora DR, Ellis RE, Akl SG, Fichtinger G (2015) Electromagnetic tracking in surgical and interventional environments: usability study. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 10(3):253–262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu X, Plishker W, Zaki G, Kang S, Kane TD, Shekhar R (2016) On-demand calibration and evaluation for electromagnetically tracked laparoscope in augmented reality visualization. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 11(6):1163–1171Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anser design repository. https://osf.io/47q8q/. Accessed on 10/27/2016
  9. 9.
    Open source electromagentic trackers. http://www.na-mic.org/Wiki/index.php/Open_Source_Electromagnetic_Trackers. Accessed on 10/27/2016
  10. 10.
    https://github.com/traneus/emtrackers. Accessed on 10/27/2016
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    O’Donoghue K, Eustace D, Griffiths J, O’Shea M, Power T, Mansfield H, Cantillon-Murphy P (2014) Catheter position tracking system using planar magnetics and closed loop current control. IEEE Trans Magn 50(7):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    O’Donoghue K, Cantillon-Murphy P (2015) Planar magnetic shielding for use with electromagnetic tracking systems. IEEE Trans Magn 51(2):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    O’Donoghue K, Cantillon-Murphy P (2015) Low cost super-nyquist asynchronous demodulation for use in em tracking systems. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 64(2):458–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    O’Donoghue K, Corvó A, Nardelli P, O’Shea C, Khan KA, Kennedy M, Cantillon-Murphy P (2014) Evaluation of a novel tracking system in a breathing lung model. In: 2014 36th annual international conference of the IEEE engineering in medicine and biology society, pp 4046–4049Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Analog Devices. Low power, programmable, waveform generator. http://www.analog.com/ad9833.html. Accessed on 10/27/2016
  17. 17.
    Paul H, Winfield H (1980) The art of electronics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Autodesk PCB Design. http://www.autodesk.com/products/eagle/overview. Accessed on 10/27/2016
  19. 19.
    O’Donoghue K (2014) Electromagnetic tracking and steering for catheter navigation. Ph.D. thesis, School of Engineering, University College CorkGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anton P, Eugene P (2003) 3-D magnetic tracking of a single subminiature coil with a large 2-D array of uniaxial transmitters. IEEE Trans Magn 39(5 II):3295–3297Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cadsoft. Eagle pcb design. https://cadsoft.io/. Accessed on 10/27/2016
  22. 22.
    Hopkins LW (1949) Development of a highly accurate synchronous demodulator. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sonntag CLW, Sprée M, Lomonova EA, Duarte JL, Vandenput AJA (2007) Accurate magnetic field intensity calculations for contactless energy transfer coils. In: Proceedings of the 16th international conference on the computation of electromagnetic fields, Achen, Germany, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Openigtlink: Open network interface for image-guided therapy. http://openigtlink.org. Accessed on 10/27/2016
  25. 25.
    The medical imaging interaction toolkit (mitk). http://mitk.org/. Accessed on 10/27/2016
  26. 26.
    3dslicer. a multi-platform, free and open source software package for visualization and medical image computing. https://www.slicer.org/. Accessed on 10/27/2016
  27. 27.
    Maier-Hein L, Franz AM, Birkfellner W, Hummel J, Gergel I, Wegner I, Meinzer HP (2012) Standardized assessment of new electromagnetic field generators in an interventional radiology setting. Med Phys 39(6):3424–3434CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hummel JB, Bax MR, Figl ML, Kang Y, Maurer C, Birkfellner WW, Bergmann H, Shahidi R (2005) Design and application of an assessment protocol for electromagnetic tracking systems. Med Phys 32(7):2371–2379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hummel J, Figl M, Birkfellner W, Shahidi R, Maurer CR Jr, Bergmann H (2006) Evaluation of a new electromagnetic tracking system using a standardized assessment protocol. Phys Med Biol 51(2):205–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Much J (2008) Error classification and propagation for electromagnetic tracking. Master’s thesis, Tech. Univ. München, Munich, Germany, Tech. Univ. München, Munich, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (2010) Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric and magnetic fields. Health Phys 99(6):818–836Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    O’Donoghue K, Cantillon-Murphy P (2015) Low cost super-nyquist asynchronous demodulation for use in em tracking systems. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 64(2):458–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© CARS 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herman Alexander Jaeger
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alfred Michael Franz
    • 3
  • Kilian O’Donoghue
    • 4
  • Alexander Seitel
    • 3
  • Fabian Trauzettel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lena Maier-Hein
    • 3
  • Pádraig Cantillon-Murphy
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.IHU StrasbourgStrasbourgFrance
  2. 2.University College CorkCorkIreland
  3. 3.Division of Computer Assisted Medical InterventionsGerman Cancer Research Center (DKFZ)HeidelbergGermany
  4. 4.CorkIreland

Personalised recommendations