Image-guided techniques improve accuracy of mosaic arthroplasty

  • Stephen Sebastyan
  • Manuela KunzEmail author
  • A. James Stewart
  • Davide D. Bardana
Original Article



Mosaic arthroplasty is a surgical technique in which a set of cylindrical osteochondral grafts is transplanted from non-load-bearing areas of the joint to repair damaged articular cartilage. Incongruity between the graft surface and the adjacent cartilage at the repair site results in inferior clinical outcomes. This paper compares technical outcome using three mosaic arthroplasty techniques (conventional, optoelectronic, and patient-specific template) on femur models.


Three distinct sets of femur models with defects were created. Preoperatively, the harvest and delivery sites were planned using custom software. Five orthopedic surgeons were recruited; each surgeon performed each of the three surgical techniques on each of the three bone models with defect. During the optoelectronic trials, the instrument position and orientation were tracked and superimposed onto the surgical plan. For the patient-specific template trials, plastic templates were manufactured to fit over the defects with cylindrical holes to guide the surgical tools according to the plan. Postoperatively, the femur models were computer tomography and laser scanned. Several measures were made to compare surgical techniques: operative time; surface congruency; defect coverage; graft surface area that is proud or recessed; air volume below the grafts; and distance and angle of the grafts from the surgical plan.


The patient-specific template and optoelectronic techniques resulted in improved surface congruency, defect surface coverage, and below-graft air gap volume in comparison with the conventional technique. However, the conventional technique had a shorter operative time.


Image-guided techniques can improve the accuracy of mosaic arthroplasty, which could result in better clinical outcomes.


Image-guided surgery Patient-specific templates Mosaic arthroplasty Autologous osteochondral grafting 



The authors are grateful to Paul St. John, HMRC (Human Mobility Research Centre, Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, Canada) and all the participating surgeons and residents. This research was supported by Grant STPGP 385959 from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada and Canadian Institute of Health Research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors confirm that there are no known conflict of interest associated with this publication.

Ethical standards

The study described in this manuscript was approved by the Queen’s University Health Sciences & Affiliated Teaching Hospitals Research Ethics Board. All participants provided their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.


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Copyright information

© CARS 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Sebastyan
    • 1
  • Manuela Kunz
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. James Stewart
    • 1
  • Davide D. Bardana
    • 2
  1. 1.School of ComputingQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Kingston General Hospital, Victory 3KingstonCanada

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