Three-dimensional modeling of an individualized functional masticatory system and bite force analysis with an orthodontic bite plate

  • Fanfan Dai
  • Longfang Wang
  • Gui Chen
  • Si ChenEmail author
  • Tianmin XuEmail author
Original Article



Orthodontic tooth movement is affected by bite forces generated from the masticatory system. This study aims to study three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the individualized functional masticatory system and explore its application in orthodontics.


An individualized masticatory system model containing the craniomaxilla, mandible, 4 pairs of primary masticatory muscles and complete dentition, including roots and precise dental crowns, was developed using 3D images from spiral computed tomography and digital casts. By registering global coordinates and using data transformation, individual movement data for mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusion were recorded with an Arcus Digma system and applied to this model to simulate the functional movements of the mandible. Using the finite element method, deformations and displacement of the masticatory muscles were simulated along with the mandibular movements. Under individualized muscle loading, the bite forces of the lower incisors with the orthodontic bite plate were analyzed.


Individualized mandibular movements were simulated, and the performance of the masticatory muscles along with the mandibular movements was measured. The bite force generated on the lower incisors with different thicknesses and the orientations of the orthodontic bite plate were acquired.


An individualized 3D masticatory system model was constructed using advanced 3D data processing software that integrated 3D images from different sources. Individualized mandibular movement and masticatory muscle performance were simulated using this model. The analysis of the bite force generated on the lower incisors with the orthodontic bite plate suggested that a thickness of 3 mm may be appropriate for clinical use.


Masticatory system Mandibular movement Finite element Three-dimensional model Bite force 



We thank Dr. Qiufei Xie (Professor in the Department of Prosthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology) for recording the volunteer’s mandibular movement data with the Arcus Digma system. We are also grateful to Wenlong Li (Postgraduates of Spacecraft Design, Beihang University School of Astronautics) for technological support with the MATLAB software. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants No.81200806 and No.81241036.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Fanfan Dai, Longfang Wang, Gui Chen, Si Chen and Tianmin Xu declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

This study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 (5). The written informed consent was obtained from the subject included in this study.


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Copyright information

© CARS 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OrthodonticsPeking University School and Hospital of StomatologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Beihang University School of AstronauticsBeijingChina

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