Multi-contrast unbiased MRI atlas of a Parkinson’s disease population

  • Yiming XiaoEmail author
  • Vladimir Fonov
  • Silvain Bériault
  • Fahd Al Subaie
  • M. Mallar Chakravarty
  • Abbas F. Sadikot
  • G. Bruce Pike
  • D. Louis Collins
Original Article



Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second leading neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease. In PD research and its surgical treatment, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), anatomical structural identification and references for spatial normalization are essential, and human brain atlases/templates are proven highly instrumental. However, two shortcomings affect current templates used for PD. First, many templates are derived from a single healthy subject that is not sufficiently representative of the PD-population anatomy. This may result in suboptimal surgical plans for DBS surgery and biased analysis for morphological studies. Second, commonly used mono-contrast templates lack sufficient image contrast for some subcortical structures (i.e., subthalamic nucleus) and biochemical information (i.e., iron content), a valuable feature in current PD research.


We employed a novel T1–T2* fusion MRI that visualizes both cortical and subcortical structures to drive groupwise registration to create co-registered multi-contrast (T1w, T2*w, T1–T2* fusion, phase, and an R2* map) unbiased templates from 15 PD patients, and a high-resolution histology-derived 3D atlas is co-registered. For validation, these templates are compared against the Colin27 template for landmark registration and midbrain nuclei segmentation.


While the T1w, T2*w, and T1–T2* fusion templates provide excellent anatomical details for both cortical and subcortical structures, the phase and R2* map contain the biochemical features. By one-way ANOVA tests, our templates significantly (\(p<0.05\)) outperform the Colin27 template in the registration-based tasks.


The proposed unbiased templates are more representative of the population of interest and can benefit both the surgical planning and research of PD.


Parkinson’s disease Multi-echo FLASH Unbiased brain atlas Multi-contrast  Susceptibility-weighted imaging 


Conflict of interest

Yiming Xiao, Vladimir Fonov, Silvain Bériault, Fahd Al Subaie, M. Mallar Chakravarty, Abbas F. Sadikot, G. Bruce Pike, and D. Louis Collins declare that they have no conflict of interest.

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Declaration of Helsinki 1975, as revised in 2008 (5). Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.


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Copyright information

© CARS 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yiming Xiao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vladimir Fonov
    • 1
  • Silvain Bériault
    • 1
  • Fahd Al Subaie
    • 2
  • M. Mallar Chakravarty
    • 3
    • 4
  • Abbas F. Sadikot
    • 2
  • G. Bruce Pike
    • 5
  • D. Louis Collins
    • 1
  1. 1.McConnell Brain Imaging CenterMontreal Neurological Institute and HospitalMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Division of neurosurgeryMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Kimel Family Translational Imaging Genetics LaboratoryThe Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Department of Radiology, Hotchkiss Brain InstituteUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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