A PACS archive architecture supported on cloud services
Diagnostic imaging procedures have continuously increased over the last decade and this trend may continue in coming years, creating a great impact on storage and retrieval capabilities of current PACS. Moreover, many smaller centers do not have financial resources or requirements that justify the acquisition of a traditional infrastructure. Alternative solutions, such as cloud computing, may help address this emerging need.
A tremendous amount of ubiquitous computational power, such as that provided by Google and Amazon, are used every day as a normal commodity. Taking advantage of this new paradigm, an architecture for a Cloud-based PACS archive that provides data privacy, integrity, and availability is proposed. The solution is independent from the cloud provider and the core modules were successfully instantiated in examples of two cloud computing providers. Operational metrics for several medical imaging modalities were tabulated and compared for Google Storage, Amazon S3, and LAN PACS.
A PACS-as-a-Service archive that provides storage of medical studies using the Cloud was developed. The results show that the solution is robust and that it is possible to store, query, and retrieve all desired studies in a similar way as in a local PACS approach.
Cloud computing is an emerging solution that promises high scalability of infrastructures, software, and applications, according to a “pay-as-you-go” business model. The presented architecture uses the cloud to setup medical data repositories and can have a significant impact on healthcare institutions by reducing IT infrastructures.
KeywordsMedical imaging PACS DICOM Telemedicine Cloud computing
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Teng C, Mitchell J, Walker C, Swan A, Davila C, Howard D, Needham T (2010) A medical image archive solution in the cloud. In: IEEE international conference on software engineering and service sciences (ICSESS 2010), Beijing, China, pp 431–434Google Scholar
- 2.CIHI: Health Care in Canada: (2009) A decade in review. Canadian Institute for Health Information, OttawaGoogle Scholar
- 5.Prepare for Disasters & Tackle Terabytes When Evaluating Medical Image Archiving (2008) In: A frost and sullivan healthcare article. http://www.frost.com
- 6.Bennett S, Bhuller M, Covington R (2009) Architectural strategies for Cloud computing. Oracle. http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/topics/entarch/architectural-strategies-for-cloud--128191.pdf
- 7.Pohjonen H, Kauppinen T, Ahovuo J (2004) ASP archiving solution of regional HUSpacs. Eu Radiol 14(9): 1702–1706Google Scholar
- 8.Huang HK (2010) PACS and imaging informatics basic principles and applications, 2nd edn. Wiley & Blackwell, New Jersey, HobokenGoogle Scholar
- 14.Huang H, Zhang A, Liu B, Zhou Z, Documet J, King N, Chan L (2005) Data grid for large-scale medical image archive and analysis, pp 1005–1013Google Scholar
- 18.Amazon Web Services LLC (2009) Case studies: TC3 health. Web page, http://aws.amazon.com/solutions/case-studies/tc3-health/
- 19.DICOM-P3 (2001) Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), part 3: information object definitions. In: National electrical manufacturers association. NEMA. http://medical.nema.org/
- 20.Google App Engine (GAE) [http://code.google.com/appengine/]
- 21.Windows Azure Platform [http://www.microsoft.com/windowsazure/]
- 22.Amazon Webservices (AWS) [http://aws.amazon.com/]
- 23.Eucalyptus [http://www.eucalyptus.com]
- 24.DICOM-P7 (2009) Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), part 7: Message exchange. In: National electrical manufacturers association. NEMA. http://medical.nema.org/
- 26.dcm4che sourceforge project [http://sourceforge.net/projects/dcm4che/]
- 27.jclouds: multi-cloud library [http://code.google.com/p/jclouds/]
- 28.RESTlet framework [http://www.restlet.org]
- 29.Amazon Simple Storage Service [https://s3.amazonaws.com/]
- 30.Google Storage for Developer [http://code.google.com/apis/storage/]