Hepatic cavernous hemangiomas: long-term (> 5 years) follow-up changes on contrast-enhanced dynamic computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and determinant factors of the size change
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To investigate the very long-term (> 5 years) follow-up changes of hepatic cavernous hemangiomas and to evaluate possible determinant factors for the changes.
Materials and methods
Among 1115 consecutive patients suspected of having hepatic hemangiomas based on imaging features, 101 patients with comparable computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging data during a 5-year follow-up interval in the Picture Archiving and Communication System were analyzed. Two radiologists independently determined the largest dimension of each lesion on axial images. In addition to background liver fibrosis or steatosis on imaging, histories of use of chemotherapeutic agents were checked from the patients’ records. The final size change of the hemangioma was categorized into three groups compared with the initial diameter (increased, > 120%; no change, 80–120%; decreased, < 80%).
Among the 101 hemangiomas, 32 lesions (31.7%) were enlarged and 21 lesions (20.8%) were shrunken during intervals of 60–157 (median, 81) months. Younger patients showed a higher prevalence of lesion enlargement (mean age: enlarged, 47.3 years; no change, 52.8 years; shrunken, 57.1 years; p = 0.003). In 15 patients with cirrhosis, the lesions (shrunken, n = 7; enlarged, n = 1) showed a higher tendency of size decrease (p = 0.009), whereas other factors did not show statistical significance (p > 0.05). Only a minor proportion (1%, n = 1) of the lesions showed size fluctuation during follow-up.
During the long-term (5–13 years) follow-up, about 50% of the hepatic hemangiomas were enlarged or shrunken to > 20% of the initial diameter. Aside from the cirrhosis and aging factors, the size changes seemed sporadic.
KeywordsHepatic hemangioma Interval change Computed tomography Magnetic resonance imaging Liver cirrhosis
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
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