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La radiologia medica

, Volume 116, Issue 7, pp 1115–1123 | Cite as

Relationship between body composition, body mass index and bone mineral density in a large population of normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic women

  • A. AndreoliEmail author
  • A. Bazzocchi
  • M. Celi
  • D. Lauro
  • R. Sorge
  • U. Tarantino
  • G. Guglielmi
Musculoskeletal Radiology / Radiologia Muscoloscheletrica

Abstract

Purpose

The knowledge of factors modulating the behaviour of bone mass is crucial for preventing and treating osteoporotic disease; among these factors, body weight (BW) has been shown to be of primary importance in postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, the relative effects of body composition indices are still being debated. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fat and lean mass and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large population of women. Moreover, this study represents a first important report on reference standard values for body composition in Italian women.

Materials and methods

Between 2005 and 2008, weight and height of 6,249 Italian women (aged 30–80 years) were measured and BMI was calculated; furthermore BMD, bone mineral content, fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Individuals were divided into five groups by decades (group 1, 30.0–39.9; group 2, 40.0–49.9; group 3, 50.0–59.9; group 4, 60.0–69.9; group 5, 70.0–79.9). Differences among decades for all variables were calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni test by the SPSS programme.

Results

Mean BW was 66.8±12.1 kg, mean height 159.1±6.3 cm and mean BMI 26.4±4.7 kg/m2. According to BW and BMI, there was an increase of obesity with age, especially in women older than 50 years (p<0.001). Lean mass increased until 50 years of age but significantly decreased after this age (p<0.001). The percentage of osteopenia and osteoporosis in the examined population was 43.0% and 16.7%, respectively.

Conclusions

Our data show that obesity significantly decreased the risk for osteoporosis but did not decrease the risk for osteopenia. It is strongly recommended that a strong policy regarding prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis be commenced. An overall examination of our results suggests that both fat and lean body mass can influence bone mass and that their relative effect on bone could be modulated by their absolute amount and ratio to total BW.

Keywords

Osteoporosis Body composition Body mass index Bone mineral density Dual X-ray absorptiometry Photon 

Relazione tra composizione corporea, indice di massa corporea e densità minerale ossea in una vasta popolazione di donne normali, osteopeniche e osteoporotiche

Riassunto

Obiettivo

La conoscenza dei fattori che modulano il comportamento della massa ossea è cruciale nella prevenzione e nel trattamento della malattia osteoporotica; tra questi fattori, il peso corporeo (BW) ha dimostrato di essere di primaria importanza nelle donne in postmenopausa. Tuttavia gli effetti relativi degli indici di composizione corporea sono oggi ancora dibattuti. Il nostro obiettivo è stato quello di analizzare la relazione tra l’indice di massa corporea (BMI), la massa grassa, la massa magra e la densità minerale ossea (BMD) in una vasta popolazione di donne. Inoltre questo studio rappresenta un primo importante report sui valori di riferimento standard di composizione corporea nella popolazione femminile italiana.

Materiali e metodi

Nel periodo compreso tra il 2005 e il 2008 sono stati rilevati peso e altezza di 6249 donne italiane (età 40–80 anni), ed è stato calcolato il BMI; inoltre sono stati misurati BMD, contenuto minerale osseo, massa grassa e massa magra attraverso assorbimetria a raggi X a doppia energia. La popolazione dello studio è stata ripartita in 5 gruppi per decade di età (gruppo 1 da 30,0 a 39,9; gruppo 2 da 40,0 a 49,9; gruppo 3 da 50,0 a 59,9; gruppo 4 da 60,0 a 69,9; gruppo 5 da 70,0 a 79,9). Per tutte le variabili sono state calcolate le differenze e la loro significatività tra le decadi di età attraverso l’analisi della varianza a una via (ANOVA) e il test di Bonferroni, utilizzando il software SPSS.

Risultati

Il BW medio è stato 66,8±12,1 kg, l’altezza media 159,1±6,3 cm, e il BMI medio 26,4±4,7 kg/ m2. Con l’aumento del BW e del BMI si è osservato un aumento dell’obesità con l’età, soprattutto sopra i 50 anni (p<0,001). La massa magra ha dimostrato di aumentare fino ai 50 anni ma è significativamente diminuita dopo questa età (p<0,001). La percentuale di osteopenia e osteoporosi nell’intera popolazione è stata rispettivamente del 43,0% e 16,7%.

Conclusioni

I nostri dati hanno mostrato che l’obesità diminuisce il rischio di osteoporosi ma non diminuisce il rischio di osteopenia. È fortemente raccomandato iniziare una rigorosa politica di prevenzione dell’osteopenia e dell’osteoporosi. Un’analisi generale dei nostri risultati suggerisce quindi che sia la massa grassa sia la massa magra possono influenzare la massa ossea e che gli effetti relativi sull’osso possono essere modulati dalla loro quantità assoluta e dal rapporto sul peso corporeo complessivo.

Parole chiave

Osteoporosi Composizione corporea Indice di massa corporea Densità minerale ossea Densitometria ossea a raggi X a doppia energia Fotone 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Andreoli
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Bazzocchi
    • 2
  • M. Celi
    • 3
  • D. Lauro
    • 4
  • R. Sorge
    • 5
  • U. Tarantino
    • 3
  • G. Guglielmi
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Human Nutrition and Physiology UnitUniversity of Rome “Tor Vergata”RomeItaly
  2. 2.Imaging Division, Clinical Department of Radiological and Histocytopathological SciencesUniversity of Bologna, Sant’Orsola-Malpighi HospitalBolognaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyUniversity Hospital “Policlinico Tor Vergata”RomeItaly
  4. 4.Endocrinology DepartmentUniversity Hospital “Policlinico Tor Vergata”RomeItaly
  5. 5.Institute of Medical Informatics and BiometryUniversity “Tor Vergata”RomeItaly
  6. 6.Department of RadiologyUniversity of FoggiaFoggiaItaly
  7. 7.Department of RadiologyHospital San Giovanni RotondoSan Giovanni RotondoItaly

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