Conversion of Potato Starch and Peel Waste to High Value Nanocrystals
The present study aimed to convert starch and potato peel waste to nanocrystals. Starch nanocrystals were prepared using two methodologies: direct acid hydrolysis and enzyme pretreatment followed by acid hydrolysis. Direct hydrolysis broke down the starch granules to nanocrystals in 12 days. Enzyme pretreatment with starch hydrolytic enzymes (α-amylase and amyloglucosidase) reduced the time for preparation of starch nanocrystals by 6 days. Starch nanocrystals of optimum size were obtained with both the treatments and the resultant size ranged from 10 to 50 nm. Nanocrystals were disk-like platelets in appearance. Cellulose nanocrystals were derived from cellulosic material in the potato peel. Cellulose was isolated from peel waste with alkali treatment. Further, cellulose nanocrystals from potato peel and cellulose microcrystalline were prepared by acid hydrolysis. Microscopic images revealed that the aqueous suspension of cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel were single rod shaped, whereas those derived from cellulose microcrystalline were rod-like nanoparticles, agglomerated in the form of bundles including some of the rods in single units (well separated). The size of potato peel nanocrystals ranged from 40 to 100 nm (length) and cellulose microcrystalline ranged from 4 to 20 nm (diameter) by 110 to 250, given 4 to 20 nm (length), respectively. As starch nanocrystals as well as cellulose nanocrystals are derived from biopolymer, both can be considered safe for humans and the environment. Moreover, the biodegradable nature of these nanocrystals makes them superior over metallic nanoparticles, particularly in the field of nanocomposites.
KeywordsAcid hydrolysis Cellulose nanocrystals Potato Potato peel Starch nanocrystals Transmission electron microscope
Authors are thankful to Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR), New Delhi for its support by sanctioning a project titled “Biodegradable and antimicrobial nanocomposite films based on potato starch for food packaging application” through Consortium Research Platform (CRP) on Nanotechnology.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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