Conversion of Potato Starch and Peel Waste to High Value Nanocrystals
- 4 Downloads
The present study aimed to convert starch and potato peel waste to nanocrystals. Starch nanocrystals were prepared using two methodologies: direct acid hydrolysis and enzyme pretreatment followed by acid hydrolysis. Direct hydrolysis broke down the starch granules to nanocrystals in 12 days. Enzyme pretreatment with starch hydrolytic enzymes (α-amylase and amyloglucosidase) reduced the time for preparation of starch nanocrystals by 6 days. Starch nanocrystals of optimum size were obtained with both the treatments and the resultant size ranged from 10 to 50 nm. Nanocrystals were disk-like platelets in appearance. Cellulose nanocrystals were derived from cellulosic material in the potato peel. Cellulose was isolated from peel waste with alkali treatment. Further, cellulose nanocrystals from potato peel and cellulose microcrystalline were prepared by acid hydrolysis. Microscopic images revealed that the aqueous suspension of cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel were single rod shaped, whereas those derived from cellulose microcrystalline were rod-like nanoparticles, agglomerated in the form of bundles including some of the rods in single units (well separated). The size of potato peel nanocrystals ranged from 40 to 100 nm (length) and cellulose microcrystalline ranged from 4 to 20 nm (diameter) by 110 to 250, given 4 to 20 nm (length), respectively. As starch nanocrystals as well as cellulose nanocrystals are derived from biopolymer, both can be considered safe for humans and the environment. Moreover, the biodegradable nature of these nanocrystals makes them superior over metallic nanoparticles, particularly in the field of nanocomposites.
KeywordsAcid hydrolysis Cellulose nanocrystals Potato Potato peel Starch nanocrystals Transmission electron microscope
Authors are thankful to Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR), New Delhi for its support by sanctioning a project titled “Biodegradable and antimicrobial nanocomposite films based on potato starch for food packaging application” through Consortium Research Platform (CRP) on Nanotechnology.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
- Dufresne A (2010) Natural rubber green nanocomposites. In: Ranimol S, Thomas S (eds) Rubber nanocomposites: preparation, properties, and applications. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore, pp 113–145Google Scholar
- Fuglie KO (1999) Raw materials for starch in Asia: some economic considerations. UPWARD [Users’ perspective with agricultural Research and Development network] field Notes,7(2): 5–7Google Scholar
- Lani NS, Ngadi N, Johari A, Jusoh M (2014) Isolation, characterization and application of nanocellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as nanocomposites. J Nanomater., Article ID 702538, 9 pages. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/702538
- Li Y, Ragauskas AJ (2011) Cellulose nano whiskers as reinforcing filler in polyurethanes. In: Reddy B (ed.). Advances in diverse industrial applications of nanocomposites, ISBN: 978–953–307-202-9. pp 17–36Google Scholar
- Lin N, Huang J, Dufresne A (2012) Preparation, properties and applications of polysaccharide nanocrystals in advanced functional nanomaterials: a review. Nano 4:3274–3294Google Scholar
- Othman SH, Rashid SA, Ghazi TI, Abdullah N (2012) Dispersion and stabilization of photocatalytic TiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous suspension for coating applications. J Nanomater. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/718214, Article ID 718214, 10 pages
- Raigond P, Ezekiel R, Kaundal B (2014) Starch fractions of cooked potatoes at low temperature. Potato J 41(1):58–67Google Scholar
- Raigond P, Ezekiel R, Singh B, Dutt S, Joshi A and Rinki (2015) Resistant starch production technologies—a review. Potato J 42(2): 81–94Google Scholar
- Raigond P, Raigond B, Kaundal B, Singh B, Joshi A, Dutt S (2017) Effect of zinc nanoparticles on antioxidative system of potato plants. J Env Biol 38:435–439Google Scholar
- Singh B, Mehta A, Raigond P (2014) Management practices to reduce the post harvest losses in potatoes. In: Souvenir of national seminar on ‘post harvest management and processing of potatoes for increasing food security in India’. pp: 1–5Google Scholar
- Singh B, Raigond P, Joshi A, Mehta A, Singh BP (2016) A manual on potato processing in India. CPRI Technical Bulletin No. 48 (Revised). ICAR- Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, pp 1Google Scholar