In this paper, we propose a method to study a general vector–host mathematical model in order to explain how the changes in biodiversity could influence the dynamics of vector-borne diseases. We find that under the assumption of frequency-dependent transmission, i.e., the assumption that the number of contacts is diluted by the total population of hosts, the presence of a competent host is a necessary condition for the existence of an endemic state. In addition, we obtain that in the case of an endemic disease with a unique competent and resilient host, an increase in its density amplifies the disease.
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Sanabria Malagón, C., Vargas Bernal, E. Competent Hosts and Endemicity of Multi-Host Vector-Borne Diseases. Bull Math Biol 81, 4470–4483 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11538-018-00543-3