Skip to main content

Goal Setting and Open Digital Badges in Higher Education

Abstract

While Open Digital Badges (ODBs) has gained an increasing recognition as micro-credentials, many researchers foresee the role of ODBs as an innovative learning tool to enhance learning experiences beyond that of an alternative credential. However, little research has explored this topic. The purposes of this paper are to 1) argue that one way to expand the impact of ODBs on learning is to integrate them with goal setting, 2) establish how ODBs could offer as an important tool in optimizing goal setting effects on learning, and 3) provide design recommendations for future educational practices that incorporate ODBs as a pedagogical tool.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Ahn, J., Pellicone, A., & Butler, B. S. (2014). Open badges for education: what are the implications at the intersection of open systems and badging? Research in Learning Technology, 22(1), 1–13.

  2. Antin, J., & Churchill, E. F. (2011). Badges in social media: A social psychological perspective. Proceedings of CHI 2011 Gamification Workshop. Canada. ACM 978-1-4503-0268-5/11/05.

  3. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4(3), 359–373.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bandura, A., & Simon, K. M. (1977). The role of proximal intentions in self-regulation of refractory behavior. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1(3), 177–193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Beetham, H., & Sharpe, R. (Eds.). (2013). Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: Designing for 21st century learning. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Besser, E. D. (2016). Exploring the role of feedback and its impact within a Digital Badge system from multiple perspectives: A case study of preservice teachers (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (ProQuest No. 10151547).

  8. Bowen, K., & Thomas, A. (2014). Badges: A common currency for learning. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 46(1), 21–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/00091383.2014.867206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bryan, J. F., & Locke, E. A. (1967). Goal Setting as a Means of Increasing Motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 51(3), 274–277.

  10. Casilli, C., & Knight, E. (2012). 7 things you should know about badges [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/library/resources/7-things-you-should-know-about-badges.

  11. Chou, C. C., & He, S. J. (2017). The Effectiveness of Digital Badges on Student Online Contributions. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 54(8), 1092–1116. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633116649374

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Christensen, C. M., Horn, M. B., & Johnson, C. W. (2017). Disrupting class: How disruptive innovation will change the way the world learns (Vol. 98). New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Cucchiara, S., Giglio, A., Persico, D., & Raffaghelli, J. E. (2014). Supporting self-regulated learning through digital badges: A case study. New Horizons in Web Based Learning, 133–142. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13296-9_15.

  14. David deMaine, S., Lemmer, C. A., Keele, B. J., & Alcasid, H. (2015). Using Digital Badges to Enhance Research Instruction in Academic Libraries. In B. L. Eden (Ed.), Enhancing Teaching and Learning in the 21st-Century Academic Library: Successful Innovations That Make a Difference (pp.59–78). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  16. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Denny, P. (2013). The effect of virtual achievements on student engagement. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 763–772). New York: ACM. Retrieved from ACM Digital Library. https://doi.org/10.1145/2470654.2470763.

  18. Devedžić, V., & Jovanović, J. (2015). Developing Open Badges: A comprehensive approach. Educational Technology Research and Development, 63, 603–620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-015-9388-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Elkordy, A. (2016). Development and Implementation of Digital Badges for Learning Science, Technologly, Engineering and Math (STEM) Practices in Secondary Contexts: A Pedagogical Approach with Empirical Evidence. In D. Ifenthaler, N. Bellin-Mularski, & D. Mah (Eds.), Foundations of digital badges and micro-credentials (pp. 483–508). Switzerland: Springer International.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  20. Elliott, E. S., & Dweck, C. S. (1988). Goals: An approach to motivation and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(1), 5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Fanfarelli, J., Vie, S., & McDaniel, R. (2015). Understanding digital badges through feedback, reward, and narrative: a multidisciplinary approach to building better badges in social environments. Communication Design Quarterly Review, 3(3), 56–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Frederiksen, L. (2013). Digital Badges. Public Services Quarterly, 9(4), 321–325. https://doi.org/10.1080/15228959.2013.842414

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Gamrat, C., Zimmerman, H. T., Dudek, J., & Peck, K. (2014). Personalized workplace learning: An exploratory study on digital badging within a teacher professional development program. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(6), 1136–1148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Garrick, B., Pendergast, D., & Geelan, D. (2016). Personalised learning, pedagogy, and E-mediated tools. Theorising Personalised Education, 27–46. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-2700-0_3.

  25. Gibson, D., Ostashewski, N., Flintoff, K., Grant, S., & Knight, E. (2013). Digital badges in education. Education and Information Technologies, 20(2), 403–410.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Goligoski, E. (2012). Motivating the learner: Mozilla’s open badges program. Access to Knowledge, 4(1). Retrieved from http://web.stanford.edu/group/ojs3/cgi-bin/ojs/index.php/a2k/article/view/381.

  27. Grant, S. (2014). What Counts as Learning: ODBs for New Opportunities. Pennsauken: BookBaby.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Higashi, R., Abramovich, S., Shoop, R., & Schunn, C. (2012). The roles of badges in the computer science student network. Paper presented at the Games+ Learning+ Society conference, Madison, WI. Retrieved from http://ri.cmu.edu/pub_files/2012/6/GLS_Conference_Proceedings_June_2012.pdf.

  29. Hinz, C. (2006). You can't get in without 'em: Badges needed for the Super Bowl come from a Maidencreek firm. Reading Eagle. pp. A

  30. Khan Academy. (2012). Share your Khan Academy badges on Facebook in style. Retrieved March 7, 2017, from https://www.khanacademy.org/about/blog/post/23071271279/facebook-opengraph.

  31. Kwon, K. H., Halavais, A., & Havener, S. (2015). Tweeting Badges: User Motivations for Displaying Achievement in Publicly Networked Environments. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 18(2), 93–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Locke, E. (1991). The motivation sequence, the motivation hub, and the motivation core. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 288–299.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Locke, E., & Latham, G. (2012). New Developments in Goal Setting and Task Performance. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

  34. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. American Psychologist, 57, 705–717.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Locke, E., Shaw, K., Saari, L., & Latham, G. (1981). Goal setting and task performance: 1969-1980. Psychological Bulletin, 90(1), 125–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. McDaniel, R., & Fanfarelli, J. (2016). Building better digital badges: Pairing completion logic with psychological factors. Simulation & Gaming, 47(1), 73–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Newby, T., Wright, C., Besser, E., & Beese, E. (2016). Passport to Designing, Developing and Issuing Digital Instructional Badges. In D. Ifenthaler, N. Bellin-Mularski, & D. Mah (Eds.), Foundation of Digital Badges and Micro-Credentials (pp. 179-201). Springer International Publishing.

  39. Peer 2 Peer University, The Mozilla Foundation & The MacArthur Foundation. (n.d.). An Open Badge System Framework: A foundational piece on assessment and badges for open, informal and social learning environments. Retrieved from https://dmlcentral.net/resources/an-open-badge-system-framework-a-foundational-piece-on-assessment-and-badges-for-open-informal-and-social-learning-environments/.

  40. Randall, D. L., Harrison, J. B., & West, R. E. (2013). Giving credit where credit is due: Designing open badges for a technology integration course. TechTrends, 57(6), 88–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-013-0706-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Reader, M., & Dollinger, S. (1982). Deadlines, Self-Perceptions, and Intrinsic Motivation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8(4), 742.

  42. Rughinis, R. (2013). Talkative objects in need of interpretation. Re-thinking digital badges in education. CHI '13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 2099–2108). https://doi.org/10.1145/2468356.2468729.

  43. Salancik, G. R. (1977). Commitment and the control of organizational behavior and belief. In B. M. Staw & G. R. Salancik (Eds.), New directions in organizational behavior (pp. 1–54). RE Krieger Publishing Company.

  44. Stetson-Tiligadas, S. M. (2016). The impact of digital achievement badges on undergraduate learner motivation (Doctoral dissertation, Capella University).

  45. Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: the synergistic effects of intrinsic goal contents and autonomy-supportive contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(2), 246.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Willis III, J. E., Flintoff, K., & McGraw, B. (2016). A Philosophy of ODBs. In D. Ifenthaler, N. Bellin-Mularski, & D. Mah (Eds.), Foundation of Digital Badges and Micro-Credentials (pp. 23–40). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

  47. Wood, R. E., Mento, A. J., & Locke, E. A. (1987). Task complexity as a moderator of goal effects: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(3), 416.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary educational psychology, 25(1), 82-91.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zui Cheng.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cheng, Z., Watson, S.L. & Newby, T.J. Goal Setting and Open Digital Badges in Higher Education. TechTrends 62, 190–196 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-018-0249-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Competency-based education
  • Goal setting
  • Gamification
  • Motivation
  • Open digital badge