, Volume 62, Issue 1, pp 29–36 | Cite as

How Useful are our Models? Pre-Service and Practicing Teacher Evaluations of Technology Integration Models

  • Royce KimmonsEmail author
  • Cassidy Hall
Original Paper


We report on a survey of K-12 teachers and teacher candidates wherein participants evaluated known models (e.g., TPACK, SAMR, RAT, TIP) and provided insight on what makes a model valuable for them in the classroom. Results indicated that: (1) technology integration should be coupled with good theory to be effective, (2) classroom experience did not generally influence teacher values and beliefs related to technology integration, (3) some models may be more useful to teachers than others, (4) the widespread use of a model does not necessarily reflect usefulness, (5) useful models for teachers should engender real-world, concrete application, and (6) visual appeal of a model is largely subjective, but some visual representations might convey notions of practicality. Conclusions should be used to help researchers and practitioners understand the practical application value of technology integration models in real-world settings.


Technology integration Theoretical models TPACK SAMR Rat Tip 



This study was funded by the J. A. and Kathryn Albertson Foundation.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Royce Kimmons declares that he has no conflict of interest. Cassidy Hall declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications & Technology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Brigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  2. 2.University of IdahoMoscowUSA

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