, Volume 60, Issue 5, pp 433–441

The Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition (SAMR) Model: a Critical Review and Suggestions for its Use

  • Erica R. Hamilton
  • Joshua M. Rosenberg
  • Mete Akcaoglu
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11528-016-0091-y

Cite this article as:
Hamilton, E.R., Rosenberg, J.M. & Akcaoglu, M. TechTrends (2016) 60: 433. doi:10.1007/s11528-016-0091-y


The Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition (SAMR) model is a four-level, taxonomy-based approach for selecting, using, and evaluating technology in K-12 settings (Puentedura 2006). Despite its increasing popularity among practitioners, the SAMR model is not currently represented in the extant literature. To focus the ongoing conversation regarding K-12 educators’ understanding and implementation of technology, we provide a critical review of the SAMR model using theory and prior research. We focus on the absence of context, its hierarchical structure, and the emphasis placed on product over process and conclude with suggestions to guide educators’ and researchers’ technology integration efforts.


SAMR Technology integration k-12 technology School technology implementation 

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications & Technology 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erica R. Hamilton
    • 1
  • Joshua M. Rosenberg
    • 2
  • Mete Akcaoglu
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Leadership and Learning, College of EducationGrand Valley State UniversityGrand RapidsUSA
  2. 2.Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Special EducationMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  3. 3.Department of Leadership, Technology, and Human Development, College of EducationGeorgia Southern UniversityStatesboroUSA

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