, Volume 59, Issue 5, pp 31–39 | Cite as

App Development Paradigms for Instructional Developers

  • Kenneth J. LuterbachEmail author
  • Kenneth R. Hubbell


To create instructional apps for desktop, laptop and mobile devices, developers must select a development tool. Tool selection is critical and complicated by the large number and variety of app development tools. One important criterion to consider is the type of development environment, which may primarily be visual or symbolic. Those distinct environments give rise to competing development paradigms. This work contrasts LiveCode and MoSync, tools from the two paradigms, which enables informed tool selection. Contrasts are drawn with respect to prerequisite knowledge requirements for development, differences in the development of user interfaces, as well as differences in computer programming and app deployment. To maximize utility of the contrasts, this article considers the differences in apps developed for the same instructional purpose. Using a drag and drop technique with feedback, users learn to identify paintings created by Rembrandt. Additionally, the apps provide a method for storing results in a database.


app development app development tools app development paradigms instructional apps 


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Notes on the images in Figure 1

  1. The Nightwatch [Public domain] via Wikipedia Rembrandt (1606–1669)
  2. Hendrickje Stoffels (1626–1663) Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn) (Dutch, Leiden 16061669 Amsterdam)
  3. The Metropolitan Museum of Art designated this image OASC, Open Access for Scholarly Content, to make “a broad range of digital images of artworks in the public domain widely and freely available for scholarly and academic publication.”
  4. Lady at her Toilette [Public domain] via Wikimedia Gerard ter Borch (1617–1681)
  5. Self-portrait [Public domain] via Wikimedia Commons Rembrandt (1606–1669)

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.East Carolina UniversityGreenvilleUSA
  2. 2.Ingersoll Rand UniversityDavidsonUSA

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