, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp 35–41 | Cite as

Participatory Scaling Through Augmented Reality Learning Through Local Games

  • John Martin
  • Seann Dikkers
  • Kurt Squire
  • David Gagnon
Original Paper


The proliferation of broadband mobile devices, which many students bring to school with them as mobile phones, makes the widespread adoption of AR pedagogies a possibility, but pedagogical, distribution, and training models are needed to make this innovation an integrated part of education, This paper employs Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) to argue for a participatory model of scaling by key stakeholders groups (students, teachers, researchers, administrators), and demonstrates through various cases how ARIS ( — a free, open-source tool for educators to create and disseminate mobile AR learning experiences — may be such a model.


Augmented Reality participatory scaling mobile computing design-based research 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ARIS (2010). Augmented Reality and Interactive Storytelling. Accessed from on Jan 18, 2013. Google Scholar
  2. Athman, J., & Monroe, M. (2004). The Effects of Environment-Based Education on Students’ Achievement Motivation. Journal of Interpretation Research, 9(1):9-25.Google Scholar
  3. Barab, S. A., Kling, R., & Gray, J. (in press). (Eds.). Designing for Virtual Communities in the Service of Learning. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Barab, S., & Squire, K. (2004). Design-based research: Putting a stake in the ground. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(1), 1-14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barab, S. A., Thomas, M. K., Dodge, T., Squire, K., & Newell, M. (2004). Critical design ethnography: Designing for change. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 35(2), 254-268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chawla, L. (2007). Student Gains from Place-based Education. Children, Youth and Environments Center for Research and Design.Google Scholar
  7. Comer, J.C. & Wikle, T.A. (2008). Worldwide diffusion of the cellular telephone, 1995-2005. The Professional Geographer 60(2): 252-269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dede, C. (2006). Scaling Up: Evolving Innovations beyond Ideal Settings to Challenging Contexts of Practice. In R.K. Sawyer (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Dewey, J. (1910/1997) How we think. Mineola: Dover. (Original work published 1910 by D.C. Heath & Co, Boston.)Google Scholar
  10. Dikkers, S., Martin, J., Coulter, B. (2012). Mobile Media Learning: Amazing uses of Mobile Devices for Teaching and Learning. ETC Press. Pittsburgh, PA. Google Scholar
  11. Dourish, P. (2001). Where the action is: The foundations of embodied interaction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  12. Ellsworth, E. (2005). Places of learning: Media, architectures, pedagogy. New York: Routledge. Google Scholar
  13. Engage (2012a). What is Situated Learning? accessed from on January 18, 2013.Google Scholar
  14. Engage (2012b). Examples of Situated Learning Genres. Retrieved April 19, 2013, from
  15. Fishman, B., Marx, R. W., Blumenfeld, P., Krajcik, J., & Soloway, E. (2004). Creating a framework for research on systemic technology innovations. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(1), 43-76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gagne, R. M., & Briggs, L. (1979). Principles of Instructional Design (2nd ed.), New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  17. Gagnon, D. (2010). ARIS: An open source platform for developing mobile learning experiences. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Available at arisgames.orgGoogle Scholar
  18. Gredler, M. E. (1996). Educational games and simulations: A technology in search of a (research) paradigm. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology (pp. 521-39). New York: MacMillian Library Reference.Google Scholar
  19. Gruenewald, D. (2003). The Best of Both Worlds: A Critical Pedagogy ofPlace. Educational Researcher, 32 (4), (pp. 3-12).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Holden, C. (2012). Local games lab ABQ | Place based-mobile games in Albuquerque, NM. Retrieved April 19, 2013, from
  21. Holden, C. L., & Sykes, J. M. (2011). Leveraging Mobile Games for Place-Based Language Learning. International Journal of Game-Based Learning, 1(2), 1-18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Horst, H.A. & Miller, D. (2006). The Cell Phone: An Anthropology of Communications. New York: Berg.Google Scholar
  23. Jenkins, H. & Squire, K.D. (2002). The Art of Contested Spaces. In L. King, (Ed.) Game On! (pp. 63-77). London: Barbican Press.Google Scholar
  24. Jenkins, H., Ford, S. & Green, J. (2013). Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture. New York, NY: New York University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  25. Klopfer, E. & Squire, K. (2008). Environmental Detectives - The development of an augmented reality platform for environmental simulations. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56 (2), 203-228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Latour, B. (1997). Trains of thoughts—Piaget, Formalism and the Fifth Dimension. Common Knowledge, Winter, 6, (3), 170-191.Google Scholar
  27. Lemke, J. (2005). Here and Then: Chronotopes and Learning in Semiotic Worlds. Paper presented at the Games, Learning, and Society (GLS) Conference, Madison, WI, June 15, 2005. [electronic, Nov 21, 2005] fp3demo.mediasite. com/fp3demo/viewer/?cid = 12a2c744-64a5-44bf-b3c0- fe69b0932cfcGoogle Scholar
  28. Lemke, J.L. & Sabelli, N. (2008). Complex systems and educational change: Towards a new research agenda. Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (1), 118-129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Leont'ev, A. N. (1978). Activity, consciousness, and personality, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  30. Murray, O.T., & Olcese, N.R. (2011). Teaching and Learning with iPads, Ready or Not. TechTrends, 55(6), 42-48. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Penuel, W. Fishman, B., Cheng, B.H., & Sabelli, N. (2011). Organizing research and development at the intersection of learning, implementation, and design. Educational Researcher, 40: 331-337 (October 2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pinch, T. J. & Bijker, W.E., (1984). The social construction of facts and artefacts: Or How the sociology of science and the sociology of technology might benefit each other. Social Studies of Science 14: 399-441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rowan, B. (2002). The ecology of school improvement: Notes on the school improvement industry in the United States. Journal of Educational Change, 3(3-4), 283-314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sabelli, N., & Dede, C. (2001). Integrating educational research practice: Reconceptualizing goals and policies. How to make what works, work for us? Menlo Park, CA: SRI Press.Google Scholar
  35. Smith, G. (2002). Place-based education: Learning to be where we are. Phi Delta Kappan, 83, 584-594.Google Scholar
  36. Squire, K. & Dikkers, S. (2011). Amplifications of Learning: Use of Mobile Media Devices Among Youth. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Published online 15 February.Google Scholar
  37. Squire, K.D, Jan, M., Mathews, J., Wagler, M., Martin, J. DeVane, B., & Holden, C. (2007). Wherever you go, there you are: The design of local games for learning. The design and use of simulation computer games in education, 265-296.Google Scholar
  38. Stevens, R. (2012). Keynote Presentation: GLS 2012. Paper presented at the Games, Learning, & Society 2012, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  39. TPS (2013). Teaching with primary sources. Accessed March 14, 2013 from Scholar
  40. Underberg, N. (2012). The Lake Eola Project. Downloaded February 12, 2013 from lakeeolaproject.tumblr.comGoogle Scholar
  41. Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. In M. Cole, J.Steiner, S. Scribner & E. Souberman (Eds.). Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Wertsch, J. V (1998). Mind as action. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Martin
    • 1
  • Seann Dikkers
    • 1
  • Kurt Squire
    • 1
  • David Gagnon
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Wisconsin-MadisonWIUSA

Personalised recommendations