, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 45–57 | Cite as

Instructional-Design Theory to Guide the Creation of Online Learning Communities for Adults



Virtual World Online Learning Online Communication Learning Community Design Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beatty, B. (2002). Using the situationalities framework. Retrieved March 4, 2008, from or contact
  2. Berge, Z. (1997). Characteristics of online teaching in postsecondary, formal education. Educational Technology, 37(3), 35–47.Google Scholar
  3. Bielaczyc, K., & Collins, A. (1999). Learning communities in classrooms: A reconceptualization of educational practice. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory. (Vol. II, pp. 269–291). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  4. Brookfield, S. D. (1995). Adult learning: An overview. In A. Tuinjman (Ed.). International encyclopedia of education. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Retrieved September 12, 2008, from Google Scholar
  5. Bull, G., Knezek, G., Roblyer, M. D., Schrum, L., & Thompson, A. (2005, Spring). A proactive approach to a research agenda for educational technology. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 3(3), 217–220.Google Scholar
  6. Caffarella, R. S. (1993). Self-directed learning. In S. B. Merriam (Ed.), An update on adult learning theory (pp. 25–35). Ann Arbor, MI: Jossey-Bass Inc. ISBN 1-55542-684-0.Google Scholar
  7. Covey, S. R. (1989). The seven habits of highly effective people: Restoring the character ethic. New York: Fireside. ISBN 0-671-66398-4.Google Scholar
  8. Dawson, S. (2006). A study of the relationship between student communication interaction and sense of community. Internet and Higher Education, 9, 153–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  10. Garrison, D. R. & Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues and future directions. Internet and Higher Education, 10, 157–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heckman, R., Li, Q. & Xiao, X. (2006, January). How voluntary online learning communities emerge in blended courses. Proceedings of the 39th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, p. 3.3.Google Scholar
  12. Ito, M., Adler, A., Linde, C., Mynatt, E., & O’Day, V. (1999). Final report: Broadening access: Research for diverse network communities (NSF #97124114). Retrieved November 24, 1999, from
  13. Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. II, pp. 215–239). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  14. Jonassen, D. (2004). Learning to solve problems: An instructional design guide. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  15. Jonassen, D., Peck, K., & Wilson, B. (1999). Learning with technology: A constructivist perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-271891-X.Google Scholar
  16. Knowles, M. (1975). Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Cambridge. ISBN 0-8428-2215-1.Google Scholar
  17. Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (Eds.). (1998). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (5th ed.). Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company. ISBN 0-88415-115-8.Google Scholar
  18. Kommers, P., Grabinger, S., & Dunlap, J. (Eds.). (1996). Hypermedia learning environments: Instructional design and integration. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. ISBN: 0-8058-1826-6.Google Scholar
  19. McLellan, H. (1998). The Internet as a virtual learning community. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 9(12), 92–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mezirow, J. (1997, Summer). Transformative learning: Theory to practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74, 5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nelson, L. M. (1999). Collaborative problem solving. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. II, pp. 241–266). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-2859-1.Google Scholar
  22. Palloff, R. M. & Pratt, K. (1999). Building Learning Communities in Cyberspace. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 0-7879-4460-2.Google Scholar
  23. Ravitz, J. (1997). An ISD model for building online communities: Furthering the dialogue. Syracuse University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 409 863).Google Scholar
  24. Reigeluth, C. M. (1997). Instructional theory, practitioner needs, and new directions: Some reflections. Educational Technology, 37(1), 42–47.Google Scholar
  25. Reigeluth, C. M. (Ed.). (1999). Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory (Vol. II). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. ISBN 0-8058-2859-1.Google Scholar
  26. Reigeluth, C. M., An, Y. (2006). Functional contextualism: An idea framework for theory in instructional design and technology. Educational Technology Research and Development, 54(1), 49–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reigeluth, C. M. & Frick, T. W. (1999). Formative research: A methodology for creating and improving design theories. In Reigeluth, C. (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory (Vol. II, pp. 633–651). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. ISBN 0-8058-2859-1.Google Scholar
  28. Richardson, W. (2006). Blogs, wikis, podcasts and other powerful web tools for classrooms. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  29. Roblyer, M. D. (2006). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.Google Scholar
  30. Rovai, A. P., Wighting, M. J., & Lucking, R. (2004). The classroom and school community inventory: Development, refinement, and validation of a self-report measure for educational research. Internet and Higher Education, 7, 263–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shea, P., Li, C. S., & Pickett, A. (2006). A study of teaching presence and student sense of learning community in fully online and web-enhanced college courses. Internet and Higher Education, 9(3), 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Snyder, M. (2002). The design of online learning communities for older adults. Unpublished dissertation, Nova Southeastern University.Google Scholar
  33. Tinto, V. (1997, Spring). Enhancing learning via community. The NEA Higher Education Journal, 13(1), 53–59.Google Scholar
  34. White, N. (2002). Defining the purpose of your community. Retrieved January 25, 2008, from

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2009

Personalised recommendations