Skip to main content

Design as Storytelling

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  • Allen, M. (2003). Michael Allen’s guide to e-learning: Building interactive, fun, and effective learning programs for any company. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

  • Aristotle. (trans. 1984). Poetics. In J. Barnes (Ed.), The complete works of Aristotle, Vol. 2 (pp. 2316–2340). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Darke, J. (1984). The primary generator and the design process. In N. Cross (Ed.), Developments in design methodology (pp. 175–188). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dewey, J. (1988). The middle works of John Dewey: Human nature and conduct, Vol. 14. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press (Original work published 1922).

  • Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education New York: Simon & Schuster (Original work published 1938).

  • Dorst, K. (2004). On the problem of design problems: Problem solving and design expertise. Journal of Design Research, 4(2). Retrieved May 11, 2006, from

  • Eisenberg, N., & Strayer, J. (Eds.). (1987). Empathy and its development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fields, D. C., Foxen, M., & Richey, R. C. (2001). Instructional design competencies: The standards (3rd ed.). Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearing House on Information and Technology.

  • Gustafson, K. L., & Branch, R. M. (2002). Survey of instructional development models (4th ed.). Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearing House on Information and Technology.

  • Jonassen, D. H., Tessmer, M., & Hannum, W. H. (1999). Task analysis methods for instructional design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keats, J. (1992). Letter to George and Thomas Keats. In H. Adams (Ed.), Critical theory since Plato (Rev. ed.) (p. 494). Toronto: Thompson Learning (Original work published 1817).

  • Lawson, B. (1997). How designers think: The design process demystified (3rd ed.). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Architectural Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Löwgren, J., & Stolterman, E. (2004). Thoughtful interaction design. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nelson, H. G., & Stolterman, E. (2003). The design way. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parrish, P. E. (2005). Embracing the aesthetics of instructional design. Educational Technology, 45(2), 16–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Polkinghorne, D. E. (1988). Narrative knowing and the human sciences. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rowland, G. (1992). What do instructional designers actually do? An initial investigation of expert practice. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 5(2), 65–86.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schank, R. (1990). Tell me a story: A new look at real and artificial memory. New York: Charles Scribner & Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schön, D. A. (1990). The design process. In V. A. Howard (Ed.), Varieties of thinking: Essays from Harvard’s philosophy of education research center (pp. 110–141). New York: Routledge.

  • Simon, H. A. (1999). The sciences of the artificial (3rd ed.). Cambridge: The MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tessmer, M., & Richey, R. C. (1997). The role of context in learning and instructional design. Educational Technology Research & Development, 45(2), 85–115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Visscher-Voerman, I., & Gustafson, K. L. (2004). Paradigms in the theory and practice of education and training design. Educational Technology Research & Development, 52(2), 69–89.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wedman, J., & Tessmer, M. (1993). Instructional designers decisions and priorities: A survey of design practice. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(2), 43–57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Additional information

Patrick Parrish is manager of instructional design with the COMET ® Program, a program within the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research that provides education and training, in web-based and residence forms, to operational meteorologists in government, military and private positions. Patrick is also currently a doctoral student at the University of Colorado at Denver in the Educational Doctorate in Leadership and Innovation program. His current work includes examining design processes exploring the aesthetic aspects of teaching and learning. His website can be found at

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Parrish, P. Design as Storytelling. TECHTRENDS TECH TRENDS 50, 72–82 (2006).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Instructional Design
  • Design Communication
  • Learner Analysis
  • TechTrends Volume
  • Educational Technology Research