, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 177–206

The natural history of verb-stem reduplication in Bantu

Open Access
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11525-009-9140-y

Cite this article as:
Hyman, L.M. Morphology (2009) 19: 177. doi:10.1007/s11525-009-9140-y


In this study I present a comparative and historical analysis of “frequentative” Bantu verb-stem reduplication, many of whose variants have been described for a number of Eastern and Southern Bantu languages. While some languages have full-stem compounding, where the stem consists of the verb root plus any and all suffixes, others restrict the reduplicant to two syllables. Two questions are addressed: (i) What was the original nature of reduplication in Proto-Bantu? (ii) What diachronic processes have led to the observed variation? I first consider evidence that the frequentative began as full-stem reduplication, which then became restricted either morphologically (by excluding inflectional and ultimately derivational suffixes) and/or phonologically (by imposing a bisyllabic maximum size constraint). I then turn to the opposite hypothesis and consider evidence and motivations for a conflicting tendency to rebuild full-stem reduplication from the partial reduplicant. I end by attempting to explain why the partial reduplicant is almost always preposed to the fuller base.


Partial reduplication Bantu Verb stem Derivation Inflection Bisyllabic foot 

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of LinguisticsUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

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