How Do Risk Environment Factors Influence Perpetration of Partner Violence among Male Migrant and Non-migrant Market Workers in Central Asia?
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) has emerged as a serious public health issue in migrant communities in Central Asia and globally. To date, however, research on risk factors associated with male perpetration of IPV among migrants remains scant. This study aims to examine risk environment theory-driven factors associated with male perpetration of IPV in the prior 6 months. We recruited, enrolled, and surveyed a respondent-driven sample of 1342 male market workers in Almaty, Kazakhstan, that included 562 (42%) non-migrants defined as Kazakhstan citizens who reside in Almaty; 502 (37%) external migrants from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, or Uzbekistan; and 278 (21%) internal migrants from other areas of Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to estimate the effects of physical, economic, and political risk environment factors on IPV perpetration by migration status after controlling for potentially confounding socio-demographic and psychosocial variables. A total of 170 participants (12.7%) reported ever perpetrating physical or sexual IPV and 6.7% perpetrated such IPV in the prior 6 months. Multiple logistic regression results suggest that the risk environment factors of poor living conditions, exposure to political violence, and deportation experiences are associated with IPV perpetration among external and internal migrants, but not among non-migrants. Food insecurity is associated with IPV perpetration among external migrants and non-migrants, but not among internal migrants. Homelessness and arrests by police are associated with IPV perpetration among internal migrants, but not among external migrants or non-migrants. These findings underscore the need to consider the unique combination of risk environment factors that contribute to male IPV perpetration in the design of programs and policies to address IPV perpetration among external and internal migrant and non-migrant men in Central Asia
KeywordsMigration Risk environment Intimate partner violence Political violence Central Asia
We deeply appreciate all the market workers who took time out of their long working hours to complete this survey.
LG guided overall conceptual design for the study and preparation of the manuscript.
LM, TJ and SS, TH and TM contributed to the preparation of the manuscript.
AT and SP contributed to the conceptual design and oversaw data collection in the field. XM and MC conducted statistical analyses. GM contributed to the conceptual design, the preparation of the manuscript and oversaw data collection in the field. All authors read and approved this manuscript.
This study was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, NIMH R01 MH082684 awarded to Dr. Nabila El-Bassel. The funder was not involved in study design or analysis.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate
This trial was approved by Columbia University’s IRB, and by the ethics committee of the Kazakhstan School of Public Health (KSPH).
Informed consent was conducted with all study participants before taking part in screening for study eligibility, and again with all eligible participants before they completed the initial assessments.
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