Advertisement

Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 95, Issue 1, pp 36–50 | Cite as

The Costly Consequences of not Being Socially and Behaviorally Ready to Learn by Kindergarten in Baltimore City

  • Amie F. Bettencourt
  • Deborah Gross
  • Grace Ho
  • Nancy Perrin
Article
  • 1.7k Downloads

Abstract

Social, emotional, and behavioral skills are foundational to learning and long-term success. However, poverty and exposure to adverse childhood experiences reduce the chances of children entering kindergarten socially-behaviorally ready to learn. This study examined the unique impact of 5-year-old children (N = 11,412) entering kindergarten not socially-behaviorally ready on three costly school outcomes by fourth grade in Baltimore City Public Schools: being retained in grade, receiving services and supports through an IEP or 504 plan, and being suspended/expelled. Controlling for all other types of school readiness, students not identified as socially-behaviorally ready for kindergarten were more likely to experience all three school outcomes. Findings underscore the importance of early prevention and intervention strategies targeting parents and social-behavioral readiness skills during the first 5 years of life.

Keywords

Social, emotional, and behavioral readiness Poverty Suspension Grade retention Special education services 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Baltimore Education Research Consortium for their partnership throughout this project, but particularly for providing us access to the data used in this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Halfon N, Houtrow A, Larson K, Newacheck PW. The changing landscape of disability in childhood. Futur Child. 2012;22(1):13–42.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Larson K, Halfon N. Family income gradients in the health and health care access of US children. Matern Child Health J. 2010;14(3):332–42.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Knudsen EI, Heckman JJ, Cameron JL, Shonkoff JP. Economic, neurobiological, and behavioral perspectives on building America’s future workforce. PNAS. 2006;103(27):10155–62.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Denham SA, Kalb S, Way E, Warren-Khot H, Rhoades BL, Bassett HH. Social and emotional information processing in preschoolers: indicator of early school success? Early Child Dev Care. 2013;183(5):667–88.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blair C, Raver CC. School readiness and self-regulation: a developmental psychobiological approach. Annu Rev Psychol. 2015;66:711–31.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thompson RA, Lewis MD, Calkins SD. Reassessing emotion regulation. Child Dev Perspect. 2008;2:124–31.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2008.00054.x.
  7. 7.
    Graziano P, Reavis R, Keane S, Calkins S. The role of emotion regulation in children’s early academic success. J Sch Psychol. 2007;45:3–19.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Campbell SB, Spieker S, Burchinal M, Poe MD. Trajectories of aggression from toddlerhood to age 9 predict academic and social functioning through age 12. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006;47:791–800.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reinke W, Herman K, Petras H, Ialongo N. Empirically derived subtypes of child academic and behavior problems: co-occurrence and distal outcomes. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2008;36:759–70.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9208-2.
  10. 10.
    National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parent of Children Ages 0–8. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2016.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mathis ETB, Bierman KL. Dimensions of parenting associated with child prekindergarten emotion regulation and attention control in low-income families. Soc Dev. 2015;24(3):601–20.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mistry KB, Minkovitz CS, Riley AW, et al. A new framework for childhood health promotion: the role of policies and programs in building capacity and foundations of early childhood health. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:1688–96.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.300687.
  13. 13.
    Burchinal M, Roberts JE, Zeisel SA, Hennon EA, Hooper S. Social risk and protective child, parenting, and child care factors in early elementary school years. Parenting: Sci Pract. 2006;6:79–113.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327922par0601_4.
  14. 14.
    Kaminski JW, Perou R, Visser SN, Scott KG, Beckwith L, Howard J, et al. Behavioral and socioemotional outcomes through age 5 years of the legacy for children public health approach to improving developmental outcomes among children born into poverty. Am J Public Health. 2013;103:1058–66.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.300996.
  15. 15.
    Vanderbilt-Adriance E, Shaw DS. Protective factors and the development of resilience in the context of neighborhood disadvantage. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2008;36:887–901.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-008-9220-1.
  16. 16.
    Kingston S, Yen Huang K, Calzada E, Dawson-McClure S, Brotman L. Parent involvement in education as a moderator of family and neighborhood socioeconomic context on school readiness among young children. J Commun Psychol. 2012;41:265–76.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    McWayne CM, Hahs-Vaugh DL, Cheung K, Green Wright LE. National profiles of school readiness skills for head start children: an investigation of stability and change. Early Child Res Q. 2012;27:668–83.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Barajas-Gonzalez RG, Brooks-Gunn J. Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. J Fam Psychol. 2014;28:855–66.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mendez JL. How can parents get involved in preschool? Barriers and engagement in education by ethnic minority parents of children attending head start. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol. 2010;16(1):26–36.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016258.
  20. 20.
    Hooper SR, Roberts J, Sideris J, Burchinal M, Zeisel S. Longitudinal predictors of reading and math trajectories through middle school for African American versus Caucasian students across two samples. Dev Psychol. 2010;46:1018–29.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Matthews JS, Morrison FJ, Ponitz CC. Early gender differences in self-regulation and academic achievement. J Educ Psychol. 2009;101(3):689–704.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014240.
  22. 22.
    Davoudzadeh P, McTernan ML, Grimm KJ. Early school readiness predictors of grade retention from kindergarten through eighth grade: a multilevel discrete-time survival analysis approach. Early Child Res Q. 2015;32:183–92.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    DiPrete TA, Jennings JL. Social and behavioral skills and the gender gap in early educational achievement. Soc Sci Res. 2012;41:1–15.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Darney D, Reinke WM, Herman KC, Stormont M, Ialongo NS. Children with co-occurring academic and behavior problems in first grade: distal outcomes in twelfth grade. J Sch Psychol. 2013;51(1):117–28.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hibel J, Farkas G, Morgan PL. Who is placed into special education? Sociol Educ. 2010;83(4):312–32.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aron L, Loprest P. Disability and the education system. Future Child. 2012;22(1):97–122.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reschly AL, Christenson SL. Grade retention: historical perspectives and new research. J Sch Psychol. 2013;51(3):319–22.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Forsyth CJ, Asmus G, Howat H, Pei LK, Forsyth YA, Stokes BR. Examining the relationship between school suspensions/expulsions and felonies. Crim Justice Stud: Crit J Crime Law Soc. 2014;27:149–58.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    United States Congress. The No Child Left Behind Act (Public Law 107-110). 2002. http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/107-110.pdf. Accessed March 5, 2017.
  30. 30.
    Miller, E., & Almon, J. Crisis in the kindergarten: why children need to play in school. New York, NY: Alliance for Childhood; 2009. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED504839.pdf. Accessed March 1, 2017.
  31. 31.
    Parker A, Neuharth-Pritchett S. Developmentally appropriate practice in kindergarten: factors shaping teacher beliefs and practices. J Res Child Educ. 2006;21(1):65–78.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Loewenberg, A. New study links kindergarten social-emotional skills to long-term success. 2016. https://www.newamerica.org/education-policy/edcentral/selstudy. Accessed March 1, 2017.
  33. 33.
    McKown C. Social-emotional assessment, performance, and standards. Futur Child. 2017;27(1):157–78.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    United States Congress. Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-112). https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-87/pdf/STATUTE-87-Pg355.pdf. Accessed March 5, 2017.
  35. 35.
    U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. Protecting students with disabilities: frequently asked questions about Section 504 and the education of children with disabilities. 2015. http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/504faq.html. Accesed March 5, 2017.
  36. 36.
    Advocacy Institute. Analysis finds students with disabilities served under Section 504 overwhelmingly white, disproportionately male. 2012. http://www.advocacyinstitute.org/resources/504analysisCRDC2012.shtml. Accessed March 1, 2017.
  37. 37.
    Isaacs JB. Starting school at a disadvantage: the school readiness of poor children. Brookings Institution. 2012;34:1–22.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bethell CD, Newacheck P, Hawes E, Halfon N. Adverse childhood experiences: assessing the impact on health and school engagement and the mitigating role of resilience. Health Aff. 2014;33:2106–15.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wanless SB, McClelland MM, Lan X, et al. Gender differences in behavioral regulation in four societies: the United States, Taiwan, South Korea, and China. Early Child Res Q. 2013;28:621–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.04.002.
  40. 40.
    Bean KF. Disproportionality and acting-out behaviors among African American children in special education. Child Adolesc Soc Work J. 2013;30:487–504.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Buchmann C, DiPrete TA, McDaniel A. Gender inequalities in education. Annu Rev Sociol. 2008;34:319–37.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Coutinho MJ, Oswald DP. State variation in gender disproportionality in special education: findings and recommendations. Remedial Spec Educ. 2005;26:7–15.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Winsler A, Hutchison LA, DeFeyer JJ, et al. Child, family, and childcare predictors of delayed school entry and kindergarten retention among linguistically and ethnically diverse children. Dev Psychol. 2012;48:1299–314.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gilliam WS. Prekindergarteners left behind: expulsion rates in state prekindergarten programs. FCD Policy Brief Ser. 2005;3:1–7.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. Civil rights data collection: data snapshot (school discipline). 2014. http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/crdc-discipline-snapshot.pdf. Accessed March 10, 2017.
  46. 46.
    Maryland State Department of Education. Baltimore City Public Schools enrollment 2015. http://www.mdreportcard.org/Enrollment.aspx?PV=34:17:30:AAAA:1:N:0:13:1:2:1:1:1:1:3. Accessed March 1, 2017.
  47. 47.
    Child & Adolescent Measurement Initiative. Adverse childhood experiences among Baltimore and Maryland’s children. 2014. Baltimore, MD: Author. www.childhealthealthdata.com. Accessed February 5, 2017.
  48. 48.
    McDaniels, A. Survey shows prevalence of violence in lives of Baltimore students. 2016. http://www.baltimoresun.com/health/bs-hs-community-forum-20160202-story.html. Accessed February 5, 2017.
  49. 49.
    Chetty, R., Hendren, N. The impact of neighborhoods on intergenerational mobility: childhood exposure effects and county-level estimates. 2016. http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/hendren/files/nbhds_paper.pdf. Accessed February 5, 2017.
  50. 50.
    Pearson Education Inc. The Work Sampling System. 5th ed. San Antonio, TX: Author; 2011.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Maryland State Department of Education. MMSR assessment guidelines. 2009. http://mdk12.org/instruction/ensure/MMSR/MMSR_FP.html . Accessed February 5, 2017.
  52. 52.
    Maryland State Department of Education. Children entering school ready to learn: school readiness baseline information. 2002. http://marylandpublicschools.org/NR/rdonlyres/BCFF0F0E-33E5-48DA-8F11-28CF333816C2/2490/School_Readiness_Report_all1.pdf. Accessed February 5, 2017.
  53. 53.
    Meisels SJ, Bickel DD, Nicholson J, Xue Y, Atkins-Burnett S. Pittsburgh Work Sampling Achievement Validation Study Executive Summary and Technical Report: Kindergarten through Third Grade Results. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan School of Education; 1998.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Meisels S, Liaw FR, Dorfman A, Nelson R. The work sampling system: reliability and validity of a performance assessment for young children. Early Child Res Q. 1995;10(3):277–96.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Connolly, F., Olson, F. S. Early elementary performance and attendance in Baltimore City schools’ pre-kindergarten and kindergarten. 2012. http://baltimore-berc.org/. Accessed February 1, 2017.
  56. 56.
    Raudenbush SW, Bryk AS, Congdon R. HLM 7.01 for Windows [computer software]. Skokie: Scientific Software International, Inc; 2013.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Muthén B, Masyn K. Discrete-time survival mixture analysis. J Educ Behav Stat. 2005;30:27–58.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Muthén LK, Muthén BO. Mplus: Statistical Analysis with Latent Variables. User’s Guide v 7.0. Muthén & Muthén: Los Angeles, CA; 2008-2015.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cohen LR, Hien DA, Batchelder S. The impact of cumulative maternal trauma and diagnosis on parenting behavior. Child Maltreat. 2008;13(1):27–38.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kiernan KE, Mensah FK. Poverty, family resources and children's early educational attainment: the mediating role of parenting. Br Educ Res J. 2011;37(2):317–36.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01411921003596911.
  61. 61.
    Mayberry LS, Shinn M, Benton JG, Wise J. Families experiencing housing instability: the effects of housing programs on family routines and rituals. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2014;84(1):95–109.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brooks-Gunn J, Duncan GJ. The effects of poverty on children. Future Child: Child Poverty. 1997;7:55–71.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mantzicopoulos P. Flunking kindergarten after head start: an inquiry into the contribution of contextual and individual variables. J Educ Psychol. 2003;95:268–78.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Moon S, Hegar RL, Page J. TANF status, ethnicity, and early school success. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2009;31:854–63.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Burchinal M, McCartney K, Steinberg L, Crosnoe R, Friedman SL, McLoyd V, et al. Examining the Black-White achievement gap among low-income children using the NICHD study of early child care and youth development. Child Dev. 2011;82:1404–20.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01620.x.
  66. 66.
    Skiba RJ, Michael RS, Nardo AC, Peterson RL. The color of discipline: sources of racial and gender disproportionality in school punishment. Urban Rev. 2002;34:317–42.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021320817372.
  67. 67.
    Anderson E. Reflections on the “Black-White achievement gap”. J Sch Psychol. 2012;50:593–7.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Duncan GJ, Magnuson KA. Can family socioeconomic resources account for racial and ethnic test score gaps? Futur Child. 2005;15:35–54.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fryer, R. G., & Levitt, S. D. (2005). The Black–White test score gap through third grade (NBER Working Paper No. 11049). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kozlowski KP. Culture or teacher bias? Racial and ethnic variation in student–teacher effort assessment match/mismatch. Race Soc Probl. 2015;7(1):43–59.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kena, G., Hussar, W., McFarland, J., et al. The condition of education 2016. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC; 2016. http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch. Accessed March 10, 2017.
  72. 72.
    Gaines, J. This school replaced detention with meditation. The results are stunning 2016. http://www.upworthy.com/this-school-replaced-detention-with-meditation-the-results-are-stunning. Accessed April 1, 2017.
  73. 73.
    Gregory A, Allen J, Mikami A, Hafen C, Pianta R. The promise of a teacher professional development program in reducing racial disparity in classroom exclusionary discipline. In: Losen D, editor. Closing the Discipline Gap. New York: Teachers College Press; 2015. p. 168–79.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Luiselli JK, Putnam RF, Handler MW, Feinberg AB. Whole-school positive behaviour support: effects on student discipline problems and academic performance. Educ Psychol. 2005;25(2–3):183–98.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341042000301265.
  75. 75.
    Schiff, M. Dignity, disparity, and desistance: effective restorative justice strategies to plug the “school-to-prison pipeline.” 2013. https://www.civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/resources/projects/center-for-civil-rights-remedies/school-to-prison-folder/state-reports/dignity-disparity-and-desistance-effective-restorative-justice-strategies-to-plug-the-201cschool-to-prison-pipeline. Accessed April 1, 2017.
  76. 76.
    Campbell F, Ramey C, Pungello E, Sparling J, Miller-Johnson S. Early childhood education: young adult outcomes from the Abecedarian Project. Appl Dev Sci. 2002;6:42–57.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Henrich CC, Gadaire DM. Head start and parent involvement. Infant Young Child. 2008;21(1):56–69.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Miedel WT, Reynolds AJ. Parent involvement in early intervention for disadvantaged children: does it matter? J Sch Psychol. 1999;37(4):379–402.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(99)00023-0.
  79. 79.
    Edelstein, S., Hahn, H., Isaacs, J., Steele, E., & Steuerle, C.E. KidsShare 2016: federal expenditures on children through 2015 and future projections. 2016. http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/84301/2000934-Kids-Share-2016-Federal-Expenditures-on-Children-through-2015-and-Future-Projections.pdf. Accessed August 28, 2017.
  80. 80.
    National Institute for Early Education Research. The state of preschool 2015. 2016. http://nieer.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Yearbook_2015_rev1.pdf. Accessed 27 Aug 2017.
  81. 81.
    Breitenstein SM, Gross D, Fogg L, et al. The Chicago Parent Program: comparing 1-year outcomes for African American and Latino parents of young children. Res Nurs Health. 2012;35(5):475–89.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Brotman LM, Dawson-McClure S, Calzada EJ, et al. Cluster (school) RCT of ParentCorps: impact on kindergarten academic achievement. Pediatrics. 2013;131(5):e1521–9.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    McClelland MM, Tominey SL, Schmitt SA, Duncan RSEL. Interventions in early childhood. Futur Child. 2017;27(1):33–47.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Perry DF, Allen MD, Brennan EM, Bradley J. The evidence base for mental health consultation in early childhood settings: research synthesis addressing child behavioral outcomes. Education and Early Development. 2010;21:795–824.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Schindler HS, Kholoptseva J, Oh SS, et al. Maximizing the potential of early childhood education to prevent externalizing behavior problems: a meta-analysis. J Sch Psychol. 2015;53:243–63.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Greenberg MT, Domitrovich CE, Weissberg RP, Durlak JA. Social and emotional learning as a public health approach to education. Futur Child. 2017;27(1):13–32.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sherman A, Trisi D. Deep Poverty among Children Worsened in Welfare Law’s First Decade. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities; 2014.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Child Trends Databank. Children in poverty 2015. http://www.childtrends.org/indicators/children-in-poverty/. Accessed April 10, 2017.
  89. 89.
    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Misplaced Priorities. 2011. http://naacp.3cdn.net/01d6f368edbe135234_bq0m68x5h.pdf. Accessed April 10, 2017.
  90. 90.
    Snyder, T.D., Dillow, S.A. Digest of education statistics 2013 (NCES 2015-011) 2015. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2015/2015011.pdf. Accessed April 10, 2017.
  91. 91.
    Bartik TJ. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute of Employment Research.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Johns Hopkins University School of NursingBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, School of NursingKowloonChina

Personalised recommendations