Advertisement

Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 93, Supplement 1, pp 42–67 | Cite as

Collateral Damage: The Health Effects of Invasive Police Encounters in New York City

  • Abigail A. SewellEmail author
  • Kevin A. Jefferson
Article

Abstract

The health effects of police surveillance practices for the community at-large are unknown. Using microlevel health data from the 2009–2012 New York City Community Health Survey (NYC-CHS) nested within mesolevel data from the 2009–2012 NYC Stop, Question, and Frisk (NYC-SQF) dataset, this study evaluates contextual and ethnoracially variant associations between invasive aspects of pedestrian stops and multiple dimensions of poor health. Results reveal that living in neighborhoods where pedestrian stops are more likely to become invasive is associated with worse health. Living in neighborhoods where stops are more likely to result in frisking show the most consistent negative associations. More limited deleterious effects can be attributed to living in neighborhoods where stops are more likely to involve use of force or in neighborhoods with larger ethnoracial disparities in frisking or use of force. However, the health effects of pedestrian stops vary by ethnoracial group in complex ways. For instance, minorities who live in neighborhoods with a wider ethno racial disparity in police behavior have poorer health outcomes in most respects, but blacks have lower odds of diabetes when they live in neighborhoods where they face a higher risk that a stop will involve use of force by police than do whites. The findings suggest that the consequences of the institutionalization of the carceral state are far-reaching.

Keywords

Health Police Neighborhoods New York City Race Ethnicity Health disparities 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was conducted while the first author was a Vice Provost’s Postdoctoral Fellow in the Population Studies Center at the University of Pennsylvania

References

  1. 1.
    Bayley DH, Shearing CD. The future of policing. Soc Rev. 1996; 30(3): 585–606.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rosenfeld R, Fornango R, Rengifo AF. The impact of order-maintenance policing on New York City homicide and robbery rates: 1988–2001. Criminology. 2007; 45(2): 355–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Terry v. Ohio. 1968; https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/392/1/case.html. Accessed 2015-12-15
  4. 4.
    New York Civil Liberties Union. Stop-and-frisk data. 2015; http://www.nyclu.org/content/stop-and-frisk-data.
  5. 5.
    New York Civil Liberties Union. Stop-and-frisk 2011. New York, NY: New York Civil Liberties Uniton; 2012.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goldberg DT. Racist culture. Blackwell Publishers Cambridge, Mass; 1993.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ridgeway G. Analysis of racial disparities in the New York police department’s stop, question, and frisk practices. Rand Corporation; 2007.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Roberts DE. Foreword: race, vagueness, and the social meaning of order-maintenance policing. J Crim Law Criminol(1973-). 1999; 89(3): 775–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weitzer R. Citizens’ perceptions of police misconduct: race and neighborhood context. Justice Q. 1999; 16(4): 819–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Forrest CB, Tambor E, Riley AW, Ensminger ME, Starfield B. The health profile of incarcerated male youths. Pediatrics. 2000; 105(Supplement 2): 286–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Freudenberg N. Jails, prisons, and the health of urban populations: a review of the impact of the correctional system on community health. J Urban Health. 2001; 78(2): 214–235.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maruschak LM, Berzofsky M, Unangst J. Medical problems of state and federal prisoners and jail inmates, 2011–12. Washington, D.C: Bureau of Justice Statistics; 2015.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Massoglia M. Incarceration as exposure: the prison, infectious disease, and other stress-related illnesses. J Health Soc Behav. 2008; 49(1): 56–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schnittker J, John A. Enduring stigma: the long-term effects of incarceration on health. J Health Social Behavior. 2007; 48(2): 115–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Unnever JD, Gabbidon SL. A theory of African American offending: race, racism, and crime. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis;2011Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Geller A, Fagan J, Tyler T, Link BG. Aggressive policing and the mental health of young urban men. Am J Public Health. 2014; 104(12): 2321–2327.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Blankenship KM, Koester S. Criminal law, policing policy, and HIV risk in female street sex workers and injection drug users. J Law, Med Ethics. 2002; 30(4): 548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Garland AF, Lau AS, Yeh M, McCabe KM, Hough RL, Landsverk JA. Racial and ethnic differences in utilization of mental health services among high-risk youths. Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 162(7): 1336–1343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hathaway JE, Mucci LA, Silverman JG, Brooks DR, Mathews R, Pavlos CA. Health status and health care use of Massachusetts women reporting partner abuse. Am J Prev Med. 2000; 19(4): 302–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McGue M, Iacono WG. The association of early adolescent problem behavior with adult psychopathology. Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 162(6): 1118–1124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Billies M. Surveillance threat as embodied psychological dilemma. Peace Conflict: J Peace Psychol. 2015; 21(2): 168–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cooper H, Moore L, Gruskin S, Krieger N. Characterizing perceived police violence: implications for public health. Am J Public Health. 2004; 94(7): 1109–1118.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Geronimus AT, Hicken M, Keene D, Bound J. “Weathering” and age patterns of allostatic load scores among blacks and whites in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2006; 96(5): 826–833.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shedd C. What about the other 99%? The broader impact of street stops on minority communities. In: La Vigne N, Lachman P, Matthews A, Neusteter SR, eds. Key issues in the police use of pedestrian stops and searches: discussion papers from an urban institute roundtable. New York,NY: The Urban Institute; 2012: 24–29.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bugental DB, Blue J, Cortez V, Fleck K, Rodriguez A. Influences of witnessed affect on information processing in children. Child Dev. 1992; 63(4): 774–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Batson CD, Fultz J, Schoenrade PA. Distress and empathy: two qualitatively distinct vicarious emotions with different motivational consequences. J Personal. 1987; 55(1): 19–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eisenberg N, Fabes RA, Schaller M, et al. Personality and socialization correlates of vicarious emotional responding. J Personal Soc Psychol. 1991; 61(3): 459–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mays VM, Cochran SD, Barnes NW. Race, race-based discrimination, and health outcomes among African Americans. Annu Rev Psychol. 2007; 58: 201–225.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cohen S, Evans G, Stokols D, Krantz D. Stress processes and the costs of coping. Behavior, health, and environmental stress. New York, NY: Springer Science and Business Media; 1986: 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Meyer IH. Minority stress and mental health in gay men. J Health Soc Behav. 1995; 36(1): 38–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wildeman C, Schnittker J, Turney K. Despair by association? The mental health of mothers with children by recently incarcerated fathers. Am Soc Rev. 2012; 77(2): 216–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee H, Wildeman C. Things fall apart: health consequences of mass imprisonment for African American women. Rev Black Polit Econ. 2013; 40(1): 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lee H, Wildeman C, Wang EA, Matusko N, Jackson JS. A heavy burden: the cardiovascular health consequences of having a family member incarcerated. Am J Pub Health. 2014; 104(3): 421–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Turney K. Stress proliferation across generations? Examining the relationship between parental incarceration and childhood health. J Health Soc Behav. 2014; 55(3): 302–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Carr D, Friedman MA. Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States. J Health Soc Behav. 2005; 46(3): 244–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Guyll M, Matthews KA, Bromberger JT. Discrimination and unfair treatment: relationship to cardiovascular reactivity among African American and European American women. Health Psychology. 2001; 20(5): 315–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kessler RC, Mickelson KD, Williams DR. The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. J Health Soc Behav. 1999; 40(3): 208–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Krieger N. Racial and gender discrimination: risk factors for high blood pressure? Soc Sci Med. 1990; 30(12): 1273–1281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Krieger N, Sidney S. Racial discrimination and blood pressure: the CARDIA study of young black and white adults. Am J Pub Health. 1996; 86(10): 1370–1378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Paradies Y. A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health. Int J Epidemiol. 2006; 35(4): 888–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Williams DR, Mohammed SA. Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research. J Behav Med. 2009; 32(1): 20–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Williams DR, Neighbors HW, Jackson JS. Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: findings from community studies. Am J Pub Health. 2003; 93(2): 200–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Williams DR, Yan Y, Jackson JS, Anderson NB. Racial differences in physical and mental health: socio-economic status, stress and discrimination. J Health Psychol. 1997; 2(3): 335–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lerman AE, Weaver V. Staying out of sight? Concentrated policing and local political action. Ann Am Acad Polit Soc Sci. 2014; 651(1): 202–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Forman TA, Williams DR, Jackson JS. Race, place, and discrimination. Perspect Soc Problems. 1997; 9: 231–261.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Taylor J, Turner RJ. Perceived discrimination, social stress, and depression in the transition to adulthood: racial contrasts. Soc Psychol Q. 2002; 65(3): 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bobo LD, Thompson V. Unfair by design: the war on drugs race, and the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. Soc Res. 2006; 73(2): 445–472.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hagan J, Albonetti C. Race, class, and the perception of criminal injustice in America. Am J Soc. 1982; 88(2): 329–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hagan J, Shedd C, Payne MR. Race, ethnicity, and youth perceptions of criminal injustice. Am Soc Rev. 2005; 70(3): 381–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Matsueda RL, Drakulich K. Perceptions of criminal injustice, symbolic racism, and racial politics. Ann Am Acad Polit Soc Sci. 2009; 623(1): 163–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tyler TR. Procedural justice, legitimacy, and the effective rule of law. Crime Justice. 2003; 30: 283–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Weitzer R, Tuch SA. Race and perceptions of police misconduct. Soc Problems. 2004; 51(3): 305–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jackson JS, Knight KM, Rafferty JA. Race and unhealthy behaviors: chronic stress, the HPA axis, and physical and mental health disparities over the life course. Am J Pub Health. 2010; 100(5): 933–939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Smith DA. The neighborhood context of police behavior. Crime Justice. 1986; 8: 313–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Community health survey 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012. Public use Dataset Accessed on 7/15/2014 2009-2012.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    United Hospital Fund. Work in progress: annual report 2014. New York City, NY: The United Hospital Fund;2014.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. New York City United Hospital Fund (UHF) neighborhoods and NYC ZIP code areas. Accessed on 9/2/2015 at http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/survey/uhf_map_100604.pdf 2006.
  58. 58.
    New York City Police Department. 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Stop, question, and frisk data. Public use Dataset Accessed on 8/15/2014 2009-2012.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Boardman JD. Stress and physical health: the role of neighborhoods as mediating and moderating mechanisms. Soc Sci Med. 2004; 58(12): 2473–2483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Spitzer E. The New York City police department’s stop & frisk practices: a report to the people of the state of New York from the Office of the Attorney General. Darby, PA:DIANE Publishing; 1999.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Duncan DT, Kawachi I, Subramanian SV, Aldstadt J, Melly SJ, Williams DR. Examination of how neighborhood definition influences measurements of youths’ access to tobacco retailers: a methodological note on spatial misclassification. Am J Epidemiol. 2014; 179(3): 373–381.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations