Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Who Shot Ya? How Emergency Departments Can Collect Reliable Police Shooting Data

  • Published:
Journal of Urban Health Aims and scope Submit manuscript

An Erratum to this article was published on 12 May 2016

Abstract

This paper examines an alternative solution for collecting reliable police shooting data. One alternative is the collection of police shooting data from hospital trauma units, specifically hospital-based violence intervention programs. These programs are situated in Level I trauma units in many major cities in USA. While the intent of these programs is to reduce the risk factors associated with trauma recidivism among victims of violent injury, they also collect reliable data on the number of individuals treated for gunshot wounds. While most trauma units do a great job collecting data on mode of injury, many do not collect data on the circumstances surrounding the injury, particularly police-involved shootings. Research protocol on firearm-related injury conducted in emergency departments typically does not allow researchers to interview victims of violent injury who are under arrest. Most victims of nonfatal police-involved shootings are under arrest at the time they are treated by the ED for their injury. Research protocol on victims of violent injury often excludes individuals under arrest; they fall under the exclusion criteria when recruiting potential participants for research on violence. Researchers working in hospital emergency departments are prohibited from recruited individuals under arrests. The trauma staff, particularly ED physicians and nurses, are in a strategic position to collect this kind of data. Thus, this paper examines how trauma units can serve as an alternative in the reliable collection of police shooting data.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Hutson H, Anglin D, Rice P, Kyriacou D, Guirguis M, Strote J. Excessive use of force by police: a survey of academic emergency physicians. Emerg Med J. 2009; 26(1): 20–2.

  2. Krug E, Dahlberg L, Mercy J, Zwi A, Lozano R. World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Cooper H, Moore L, Gruskin S, Krieger N. Characterizing perceived police violence: implications for public health. Am J Public Health. 2004; 94(7): 1109–1118.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Lowery W. How many police shootings a year? No one knows. Washington Post. September 8, 2014. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2014/09/08/how-many-police-shootings-a-year-no-one-knows/

  5. Schmidt M. Scant data frustrates efforts to assess number of shootings by police. NY Times. April 8, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/09/us/us-has-limited-data-on-shootings-involving-police.html?_r=0

  6. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Uniform crime report: Crime in the United States 2013. U.S. Department of Justice. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015, from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2013/crime-in-the-u.s.-2013/cius-home

  7. Barry R, Jones C. Hundreds of police killings are uncounted in federal stats. Wall Street J. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/hundreds-of-police-killings-are-uncounted-in-federal-statistics-1417577504

  8. Gabrielson R, Grochowski Jones R, Sagara E. Deadly force, in black and white. ProPublica. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015, from http://www.propublica.org/article/deadly-force-in-black-and-white

  9. Bratton W. New York City Police Department annual firearms discharge report 2013. New York: New York City Police Department; 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Graham DA. Why is it so hard to track police killings? The Atlantic. June 3, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2015/06/why-is-it-so-hard-to-track-police-killings/394772/

  11. Hargarten S, Waeckerle J. Docs and cops: a collaborating or colliding partnership? Ann Emerg Med. 2001; 38(4): 438–440.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Shepherd J. Emergency medicine and police collaboration to prevent community violence. Ann Emerg Med. 2001; 38(4): 430–437.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Sutherland I, Sivarajasingam V, Shepherd J. Recording of community violence by medical and police services. Inj Prev. 2002; 8(3): 246–247.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. Howe A, Crilly M. Identification and characteristics of victims of violence identified by emergency physicians, triage nurses, and the police. Inj Prev. 2002; 8(4): 321–323.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Florence C, Shepherd J, Brennan I, Simon T. Effectiveness of anonymised information sharing and use in health service, police, and local government partnership for preventing violence related injury: experimental study and time series analysis. BMJ. 2011; 342(16 2): d3313–d3313.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Kellermann A, Bartolomeos K, Fuqua-Whitley D, Sampson T, Parramore C. Community-level firearm injury surveillance: local data for local action. Ann Emerg Med. 2001; 38(4): 423–429.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Kellermann A, Rivara F, Lee R, Banton J, Cummings P, Hackman B, Somes G. Injuries due to firearms in three cities. N Engl J Med. 1996; 335(19): 1438–1444.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Cole T, Flanigan A. What can we do about violence? JAMA. 1999; 282(5): 481.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Shepherd J, Lisles C. Towards multi-agency violence prevention and victim support: an investigation of police-accident and emergency service liaison. Br J Criminol. 1998; 38(3): 351–370.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Rich J, Grey C. Pathways to recurrent trauma among young black men: traumatic stress, substance use, and the “Code of the street”. Am J Public Health. 2005; 95(5): 816–824.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. Purtle J, Rich L, Bloom S, Rich J, Corbin T. Cost−benefit analysis simulation of a hospital-based violence intervention program. Am J Prev Med. 2015; 48(2): 162–169.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Chong V, Smith R, Garcia A, Lee W, Ashley L, Marks A, et al. Hospital-centered violence intervention programs: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Am J Surg. 2015; 209(4): 597–603.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Cooper C, Eslinger D, Stolley P. Hospital-based violence intervention programs work. J Trauma Inj Infect Crit Care. 2006; 61(3): 534–540.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Rich J. Wrong place, wrong time : trauma and violence in the lives of young black men. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Lim H, McCart M, Davies W, Calhoun A, Melzer-Lange M. Risk for repeat emergency department visits for violent injuries in youth firearm victims. Clin Med Trauma Intensive Med. 2009; 2: 1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Glaser B, Strauss A. The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co.; 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Ariel B, Weinborn C, Boyle A. Can routinely collected ambulance data about assaults contribute to reduction in community violence? Emerg Med J. 2013; 32(4): 308–313.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Cooper C, Eslinger D, Nash D, Al Zawahri J, Stolley P. Repeat victims of violence. Arch Surg. 2000; 135(7): 837.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Claassen C, Larkin G, Hodges G, Field C. Criminal correlates of injury-related emergency department recidivism. J Emerg Med. 2007; 32(2): 141–147.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Davis J, Castilla D, Schulman C, Perez E, Neville H, Sola J. Twenty years of pediatric gunshot wounds: an urban trauma center’s experience. J Surg Res. 2013; 184(1): 556–560.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Liebschutz J, Schwartz S, Hoyte J, Conoscenti L, Christian A, Muhammad L, et al. A chasm between injury and care: experiences of black male victims of violence. J Trauma Inj Infect Crit Care. 2010; 69(6): 1372–1378.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Keough V, Lanuza D, Jennrich J, Gulanick M, Holm K. Characteristics of the trauma recidivist: an exploratory descriptive study. J Emerg Nurs. 2001; 27(4): 340–346.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Cooper H. War on drugs policing and police brutality. Subst Use Misuse. 2015; 50(8–9): 1188–1194.

  34. Boyle A, Snelling K, White L, Ariel B, Ashelford L. External validation of the Cardiff model of information sharing to reduce community violence: natural experiment. Emerg Med J. 2012; 30(12): 1020–1023.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Kindy K. Fatal police shootings in 2015 approaching 400 nationwide. Washington Post. May 30, 2015. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/fatal-police-shootings-in-2015-approaching-400-nationwide/2015/05/30/d322256a-058e-11e5-a428-c984eb077d4e_story.html

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Joseph B. Richardson Jr.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Richardson, J.B., St. Vil, C. & Cooper, C. Who Shot Ya? How Emergency Departments Can Collect Reliable Police Shooting Data. J Urban Health 93 (Suppl 1), 8–31 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-0008-7

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-0008-7

Keywords

Navigation