A Multilevel Analysis of Gender, Latino Immigrant Enclaves, and Tobacco Use Behavior
Research suggests that immigrant enclaves positively influence health behaviors such as tobacco use through supportive social networks and informal social control mechanisms that promote healthy behavioral norms. Yet, the influence of social cohesion and control on tobacco use may depend on smoking-related norms, which can vary by gender. This study examines the influence of neighborhood Latino immigrant enclave status on smoking and cessation among Hispanic men and women. Data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey was combined with census data to assess the relationship between immigrant enclaves, gender, and smoking using multilevel regression. The effect of the Hispanic enclave environment on smoking differed by gender. Living in an enclave had a harmful effect on tobacco use among Hispanic men, marginally increasing the likelihood of smoking and significantly reducing cessation. This effect was independent of neighborhood socioeconomic status, nativity, and other individual demographics. Neighborhood immigrant concentration was not associated with smoking or cessation for Hispanic women. Research, interventions, and policies aimed at reducing smoking among Hispanics may need to be gender responsive to ensure effectiveness as well as health and gender equity.
KeywordsSmoking Neighborhoods Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Gender Multilevel analysis
The data for this study is from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), which is funded by a grant R01 HD35944 from the National Institute of Health and Child Development to Rand Corporation in Santa Monica, CA, USA. For more information, see http://www.lasurvey.rand.org.
- 1.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health;2014.Google Scholar
- 8.Fagan AA, Wright EM, Pinchevsky GM. The protective effects of neighborhood collective efficacy on adolescent substance use and violence following exposure to violence. Journal of youth and adolescence. Oct 30 2013.Google Scholar
- 24.Sampson RJ. Neighborhood-level context and health: lessons from sociology. In: Kawachi I, Berkman LS, eds. Neighborhoods and Health. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2003.Google Scholar
- 32.McCleary-Sills JD, Villanti A, Rosario E, Bone L, Stillman F. Influences on tobacco use among urban Hispanic young adults in Baltimore: findings from a qualitative study. Prog Commun Health Partner. 2010; 4(4): 289–97.Google Scholar
- 34.L.A. FANS. The Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. 2003; Available at: http://www.lasurvey.rand.org/. Accessed October 10, 2010.
- 35.Sastry N, Pebley AR. Non-response in the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. Los Angeles, C.A.: RAND Corporation; 2003. RAND Working Paper DRU-2400/7-LAFANS.Google Scholar
- 36.U.S. Census Bureau. Summary File 3. 2006; Available at: http://www.census.gov. Accessed October 11, 2005.
- 37.STATA/IC for Windows (32-bit) [computer program]. Version 11.0. College Station, Texas: StataCorp; 2010.Google Scholar
- 38.Raudenbush SW. HLM 6: Hierarchical Linear and Nonlinear Modeling. Lincolnwood, Ill.: Scientific Software Int. Inc.; 2004.Google Scholar
- 39.Snijders T, Bosker R. Multilevel Analysis: An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Multilevel Modeling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.; 1999.Google Scholar
- 41.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System [online database]. Atlanta, Ga: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2000.Google Scholar
- 42.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults--United States 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002; 51(29): 642–5.Google Scholar
- 44.Bottorff JL, Oliffe JL, Kelly MT, et al. Men’s business, women’s work: gender influences and fathers’ smoking. Sociol Health Illn. Feb 12 2010.Google Scholar
- 45.Canaan J. One thing leads to another: drinking, fighting and working class masculinities. In: Mac an Ghaill M, ed. Understanding Masculinities. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press; 1996.Google Scholar
- 47.Majors R, Billson JM. Cool Pose: The Dilemmas of Black Manhood in America. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster; 1992.Google Scholar
- 51.Peterson CE, Sastry N, Pebley AR, Ghosh-Dastidar B, Williamson S, Lara-Cinisomo S. The Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey Codebook. Los Angeles, C.A.: RAND Corporation; 2004.Google Scholar
- 53.Duncan GJ, Connell JP, Klebanov PK. Conceptual and methodological issues in estimating causal effects of neighborhoods and family conditions on individual development. In: Brooks-Gunne J, Duncan GJ, Aber JL, eds. Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children, vol. 1. New York, NY: Russell Sage Press; 1997.Google Scholar