Gentrification and Preterm Birth in New York City, 2008–2010
- 1.4k Downloads
Adverse birth outcomes have been linked to neighborhood level socioeconomic status. However, little work has examined the influence of social and economic change over time (i.e., gentrification) on health. This study aims to assess the association between gentrification and preterm birth (PTB) while examining the modifying effect of maternal race/ethnicity and educational attainment. New York City births, 2008–2010, (n = 126,165) were linked to a measure of gentrification at the community district level (n = 59). The gentrification measure was calculated using percent change in education level, poverty level, and median household income (MHI) between the 2005–2009 American Community Survey and the 1990 Census. PTB was defined as clinical gestational age less than 37 weeks. Generalized estimating equations were utilized to examine the association. Gentrification (i.e., increase in residents with a college education, increase in MHI, and decrease in residents living below the poverty line) was not associated with PTB. However, among Non-Hispanic Blacks, very high gentrification was adversely associated with PTB (AOR, 1.16; 95 % CI, 1.01–1.33) as compared to those who lived in a very low gentrified neighborhood. Among non-Hispanic Whites, living in a very high gentrified neighborhood was protective as compared to living in a very low gentrified neighborhood (AOR, 0.78; 95 % CI, 0.64–0.94). Although there is a need to develop a more nuanced measure of gentrification, these results indicate that changes in the economic character of a neighborhood may have a significant influence on birth outcomes.
KeywordsGentrification Preterm birth Socio-economic status Urban renewal
- 4.Borrell LN, Diez Roux AV, Rose K, Catellier D, Clark BL. Neighbourhood characteristics and mortality in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Int J Epidemiol. Apr 2004; 33(2): 398–407.Google Scholar
- 5.Collins JW Jr, David RJ. The differential effect of traditional risk factors on infant birthweight among blacks and whites in Chicago. Am J Public Health. Jun 1990; 80(6): 679–681.Google Scholar
- 7.O’Campo P, Xue X, Wang MC, Caughy M. Neighborhood risk factors for low birthweight in Baltimore: a multilevel analysis. Am J Public Health. Jul 1997; 87(7): 1113–1118.Google Scholar
- 8.Pearl M, Braveman P, Abrams B. The relationship of neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics to birthweight among 5 ethnic groups in California. Am J Public Health. Nov 2001; 91(11): 1808–1814.Google Scholar
- 9.Huynh M, Parker JD, Harper S, Pamuk E, Schoendorf KC. Contextual effect of income inequality on birth outcomes. Int J Epidemiol. Aug 2005; 34(4): 888–895.Google Scholar
- 10.Kaufman JS, Dole N, Savitz DA, Herring AH. Modeling community-level effects on preterm birth. Ann Epidemiol. May 2003; 13(5): 377–384.Google Scholar
- 11.Masi CM, Hawkley LC, Piotrowski ZH, Pickett KE. Neighborhood economic disadvantage, violent crime, group density, and pregnancy outcomes in a diverse, urban population. Soc Sci Med. Dec 2007; 65(12): 2440–2457.Google Scholar
- 12.Messer LC, Kaufman JS, Dole N, Savitz DA, Laraia BA. Neighborhood crime, deprivation, and preterm birth. Ann Epidemiol. Jun 2006; 16(6): 455–462.Google Scholar
- 13.Kennedy M, Leonard P. Dealing with Neighborhood Change: A Primer on Gentrification and Policy Choices. New York: The Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy; 2001.Google Scholar
- 14.Fullilove MT, Wallace R. Serial forced displacement in American cities, 1916–2010. J Urban Health. Jun 2011; 88(3): 381–389.Google Scholar
- 15.Larson HG, Hansen AL. Gentrificaton—gentle or traumatic? Urban renewal policies and socioeconomic transformations in Copenhagen. Urban Stud. 2008; 45(12): 20.Google Scholar
- 16.Marcuse P. Gentrification, abandonment, and displacement: connections, causes, and policy responses in New York City. J Urban Contemp Law. 1985; 28: 195–240.Google Scholar
- 18.Pickett KE, Ahern JE, Selvin S, Abrams B. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, maternal race and preterm delivery: a case–control study. Ann Epidemiol. Aug 2002; 12(6): 410–418.Google Scholar
- 19.Robert SA, Reither EN. A multilevel analysis of race, community disadvantage, and body mass index among adults in the US. Soc Sci Med. Dec 2004; 59(12): 2421–2434.Google Scholar
- 20.Steptoe A, Feldman PJ. Neighborhood problems as sources of chronic stress: development of a measure of neighborhood problems, and associations with socioeconomic status and health. Ann Behav Med. Summer 2001; 23(3): 177–185.Google Scholar
- 22.Rich-Edwards JW, Grizzard TA. Psychosocial stress and neuroendocrine mechanisms in preterm delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. May 2005; 192(5 Suppl): S30–35.Google Scholar
- 23.Planning NDo. Community District Profiles. Available at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/html/lucds/cdstart.shtml. Accessed July 10, 2013.
- 24.Unit MsCA. About Community Boards. Available at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/cau/html/cb/about.shtml#govt. Accessed July 10, 2013.
- 25.Census. American Community Survey: Comparing ACS Data. US Census Bureau. Available at: http://www.census.gov/acs/www/guidance_for_data_users/comparing_data/#. Accessed July 18, 2012, 2012.