Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 90, Issue 3, pp 559–573 | Cite as

Research on a Vulnerable Neighborhood—The Vancouver Downtown Eastside from 2001 to 2011

  • Isabelle Aube Linden
  • Marissa Y. Mar
  • Gregory R. Werker
  • Kerry Jang
  • Michael Krausz
Article

Abstract

The Downtown Eastside (DTES) of Vancouver is the subject of considerable research due to high rates of drug use, poverty, crime, infectious disease, and mental illness. This paper first presents a brief background to the DTES and then presents a survey of literature addressing the issues in this area from 2001 to 2011. The literature surveyed includes a range of publications such as those from peer-reviewed journals and the grey literature of reports and dissertations. This survey investigates the themes and outcomes of the extant literature and highlights the notable lack of research on mental health in the DTES.

Keywords

DTES Vancouver Publications Literature Homelessness Mental health Substance use 

References

  1. 1.
    Campbell L, Boyd N, Culbert L. A thousand dreams: Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside and the fight for its future. Vancouver: D&M Publishers, Inc; 2009.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    City of Vancouver. 2007 survey of low-income housing in the downtown core. Vancouver: City of Vancouver; 2007.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Swanson J, Pederson W. Still losing hotel rooms: hotel survey and report. Vancouver: CCAP; 2009.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Werb D, BeBeck K, Kerr T, Li K, Montaner J, Wood E. Modeling 10-year crack cocaine use trends in a Canadian setting. Drug and Alcohol Rev. 2010; 29: 271–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    City of Vancouver Community Services Group. 10 years of Downtown Eastside revitalization: a backgrounder. Vancouver: City of Vancouver; 2009.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leidl P. Vancouver: prosperity and poverty make for uneasy bedfellows in world’s most ‘liveable’ city. UNFPA; 2007.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kerr T, Wood E, Grafstein E, Ishida T, Shannon K, Lai C, Montaner J, Tyndall MW. High rates of primary care and emergency department use among injection drug users in Vancouver. J Public Health. 2005; 27(1): 62–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shannon K, Ishida T, Lai C, Tyndall MW. The impact of unregulated single room occupancy hotels on the health status of illicit drug users in Vancouver. Int J Drug Policy. 2006; 17: 107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    City of Vancouver. 2008. Four pillars drug strategy. Available at: http://vancouver.ca/fourpillars/.
  10. 10.
    Wood E, Tyndall M, Lai C, Montaner JSG, Kerr T. Impact of a medically supervised safer injecting facility on drug dealing and other drug-related crime. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2006; 1(13): 13–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wilson-Bates F. Lost in transition: how a lack of capacity in the mental health system is failing Vancouver’s mentally ill and draining police resources. Vancouver: Vancouver Police Department; 2008.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Quello S, Brady K, Sonne SC. Mood disorders and substance use disorder: a complex comorbidity. Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2005; 3(1): 13–21.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thompson S. Policing Vancouver’s mentally ill: the disturbing truth. Beyond lost in transition. Vancouver: Vancouver Police Department; 2010.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Canadian Broadcasting Corporation News. Vancouver’s Insite drug injection clinic will stay open. Available at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/story/2011/09/29/bc-insite-supreme-court-ruling-advancer.html. Accessed 22 May 2012.
  15. 15.
    Janssen PA, Demorest LC, Whynot EM. Acupuncture for substance abuse treatment. J Urban Health. 2005; 82(2): 285–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marshall SK, Charles G, Hare J, Ponzetti JJ, Stokl M. Sheway’s services for substance using pregnant and parenting women: evaluating the outcomes for infants. Can J Community Ment Health. 2005; 24(1): 19–33.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gurstein P, Small D. From housing to home: reflexive management for those deemed hard to house. Hous Stud. 2005; 20(5): 717–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Patrick DM, Rekart ML, Jolly A, et al. Heterosexual outbreak of infectious syphilis: epidemiological and ethnographic analysis and implications for control. Sex Transm Infect. 2002; 78: i164–i169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marshall BD, Fairbairn N, Li K, Wood E, Kerr T. Physical violence among a prospective cohort of injection drug users: a gender-focused approach. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008; 97: 237–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schuurman N, Cinnamon J, Crooks VA, Hameed SM. Pedestrian injury and the built environment: an environmental scan of hotspots. BMC Public Health. 2009; 9: 233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Compton M. “I’d be Dead Without it” Persons living with HIV/AIDS describe the impact of adequate housing on their health and health practices. Dissertation, Vancouver: School of Social Work, University of British Columbia; 2006.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stewart N, McCann E. Placing housing policy: plans, challenges, and advocacy in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside. Dissertation, Burnaby: Department of Geography, Simon Fraser University; 2009.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Braitstein P. Sexual violence among a cohort of injection drug users. Dissertation, Vancouver: Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia; 2001.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bungay VA. Health experiences of women who are street-involved and use crack cocaine: inequity, oppression, and relations of power in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside. Dissertation, Vancouver: School of Nursing, University of British Columbia; 2008.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chambers CT. Risk and resiliency factors associated with injection drug use among at-risk youth in Vancouver, British Columbia. Dissertation, Vancouver: Department of Health Care and Epidemiology. University of British Columbia; 2009.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Howard T, Jackson M, Kerr T, Pacey K, Richardson J, Tyndall M. To serve and protect: a report on policing in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside. Vancouver: Pivot Legal Society; 2002.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Miewald C. Food security and housing in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside. Vancouver: Simon Fraser University; 2009.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Babolet H, Cuddeford V, Jeffries F, Korstad H, Kubris S, Mark S, Miewald C, Moreland F. Vancouver food system assessment. Vancouver: Western Economic Diversification Canada; 2004.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bruce RR. An intersectional analysis of aboriginal women in the Downtown Eastside and B.C.’s income assistance policy. Dissertation, Burnaby: Department of Political Science, Simon Fraser University; 2009.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Salmon A, Livingston A. “Me, I’m living it”: the primary health care experiences of women who use drugs in Vancouver’s downtown eastside. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, Centre for Excellence for Women’s Health, Women’s Health Research Institute; 2009.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thomas L. Housing services report. Vancouver: Vancouver Community Mental Health Services; 2002.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thomas L. Outcome evaluation: mental health supported housing. Vancouver: Vancouver Community Mental Health Services; 2006.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabelle Aube Linden
    • 1
  • Marissa Y. Mar
    • 1
  • Gregory R. Werker
    • 2
  • Kerry Jang
    • 3
    • 4
  • Michael Krausz
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.St. Paul’s HospitalCentre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences (CHÉOS)VancouverCanada
  2. 2.Sauder School of BusinessUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.City CouncilCity of Vancouver, Vancouver City HallVancouverCanada
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry, UBC HospitalUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  5. 5.School of Population and Public HealthUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations