Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 90, Issue 4, pp 632–652 | Cite as

Retail Redlining in New York City: Racialized Access to Day-to-Day Retail Resources

  • Naa Oyo A. Kwate
  • Ji Meng Loh
  • Kellee White
  • Nelson Saldana
Article

Abstract

Racial residential segregation is associated with health inequalities in the USA, and one of the primary mechanisms is through influencing features of the neighborhood physical environment. To better understand how Black residential segregation might contribute to health risk, we examined retail redlining; the inequitable distribution of retail resources across racially distinct areas. A combination of visual and analytic methods was used to investigate whether predominantly Black census block groups in New York City had poor access to retail stores important for health. After controlling for retail demand, median household income, population density, and subway ridership, percent Black was associated with longer travel distances to various retail industries. Our findings suggest that Black neighborhoods in New York City face retail redlining. Future research is needed to determine how retail redlining may perpetuate health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage.

Keywords

Segregation African American/Black Retail Redlining Neighborhoods New York City 

References

  1. 1.
    Achugbue E. Nontraditional market analyses: dismantling barriers to retail development in underserved neighborhoods. Res Rev. 2006; 13(3): 15–18.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bader MDM, Ailshire JA, Morenoff JD, House JS. Measurement of the local food environment: a comparison of existing data sources. Am J Epidemiol. 2010; 171(5): 609–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bader MDM, Purciel M, Yousefzadeh P, Neckerman KM. Disparities in neighborhood food environments: implications of measurement strategies. Economic Geography. 2010; 86(4): 409–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barnes SL. The Cost of Being Poor: a comparative study of life in poor urban neighborhoods in Gary, Indiana. Albany: State University of New York Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beaulac J, Kristjansson E, Cummins S. A systematic review of food deserts, 1966–2007. Prev Chron Dis. 2009; 6(3): 1–10.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bodor JN, Rice JC, Farley TA, Swalm CM, Rose D. The association between obesity and urban food environments. J Urban Health. 2010; 87(5): 771–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burrows R, Gane N. Geodemographics, software, and class. Sociol. 2006; 40(5): 793–812.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Center for an Urban Future. (2009). Return of the chains: this year’s borough by borough analysis of New York City’s largest retailers (vol. 2). New York, NY: Center for an Urban Future.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chiefo S, Kneece S, Gasper S, Mundy T, Inamura M, Solomon B. Pittsburgh purchasing power profiles. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon University; 2004.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cooper HL, Bossak BH, Tempalski B, Friedman SR, Des Jarlais DC. Temporal trends in spatial access to pharmacies that sell over-the-counter syringes in New York City health districts: relationship to local racial/ethnic composition and need. J Urban Health. 2009; 86(6): 929–945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cummins SCJ, McKay L, Macintyre S. McDonald’s restaurants and neighborhood deprivation in Scotland and England. Am J Prev Med. 2005; 29(4): 308–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D’Rozario D, Williams JD. Retail redlining: definition, theory, typology, and measurement. J Macromarket. 2005; 25(2): 175–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    ESRI. Community tapestry handbook. Redlands: ESRI; 2007.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    ESRI. Methodology statement: ESRI Data–Market Potential. Redlands: ESRI; 2009.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hellig A, Sawicki DS. Race and residential accessibility to shopping and services. Hous Policy Debate. 2003; 14(1 and 2): 69–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kramer MR, Hogue CR. Is segregation bad for your health? Epidemiologic Reviews. 2009; 31: 178–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Krieger N. Embodying inequality: a review of concepts, measures, and methods for studying health consequences of discrimination. Int J Health Serv. 1999; 29(2): 295–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kwate NOA, Meyer IH. Association between residential exposure to outdoor alcohol advertising and problem drinking among African American women in New York City. Am J Public Health. 2009; 99(2): 228–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kwate NOA, Yau CY, Loh JM, Williams D. Inequality in obesigenic environments: fast food density in New York City. Health & Place. 2009; 15: 364–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    LaVeist TA, Wallace JM. Health risk and inequitable distribution of liquor stores in African American neighborhood. Soc Sci Med. 2000; 51: 613–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Macintyre S, Ellaway A, Cummins S. Place effects on health: how can we conceptualise, operationalise and measure them? Soc Sci Med. 2002; 55(1): 125–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Macintyre S, Macdonald L, Ellaway A. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland. Soc Sci Med. 2008; 67: 900–914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Massey DS. Segregation and stratification: a biosocial perspective. Du Bois Rev Soc Sci Res Race. 2004; 1(1): 7–25.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mays VM, Cochran SD, Barnes NW. Race, race-based discrimination, and health outcomes among African Americans. Annu Rev Psychol. 2007; 58: 201–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mediamark Research & Intelligence. Survey of the American Consumer. New York: GfK MRI; 2008.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Meltzer, R., & Schuetz, J. (2011, online first). Bodegas or bagel shops? Neighborhood differences in retail and household services. Economic Development Quarterly, DOI: 10.1177/0891242411430328.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Morland K, Wing S, Diez RA. The contextual effect of the local food environment on residents’ diets: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J Publ Health. 2002; 92(11): 1761–1767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    New York City Department of City Planning. (2007). Census FactFinder. Retrieved September 1, 2005 http://gis.nyc.gov/dcp/pa/address.jsp.
  29. 29.
    New York City Department of City Planning. (2011). Population Census 2010. Table PL-P2A NYC: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin New York City and Boroughs, 1990 to 2010. http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/pdf/census/census2010/t_pl_p2a_nyc.pdf.
  30. 30.
    NYPD Crime Statistics. (2011). Crime Prevention, Crime Statistics. http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/html/crime_prevention/crime_statistics.shtml.
  31. 31.
    Paradies Y. A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health. Int J Epidemiol. 2006; 35: 888–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pascoe EA, Smart Richman L. Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull. 2009; 135(4): 531–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pearce J, Blakely T, Witten K, Bartie P. Neighborhood deprivation and access to fast-food retailing. Am J Prev Med. 2007; 32(5): 375–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schulz AJ, Kannan S, Dvonch JT, Israel BA, Allen A, 3rd James SA, Lepkowski J. Social and physical environments and disparities in risk for cardiovascular disease: the healthy environments partnership conceptual model. Environ Health Perspect. 2005; 113(12): 1817–1825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schulz AJ, Williams DR, Israel BA, Lempert LB. Racial and spatial relations as fundamental determinants of health in Detroit. Milbank Q. 2002; 80(4): 677–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shapiro TM. The hidden cost of being African American: how wealth perpetuates inequality. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Small ML, McDermott M. The presence of organizational resources in poor urban neighborhoods: an analysis of average and contextual effects. Soc Forces. 2006; 84(3): 1697–1724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Smiley MJ, Diez Roux AV, Brines SJ, Brown DG, Evenson KR, Rodriguez DA. A spatial analysis of health-related resources in three diverse metropolitan areas. Health & Place. 2010; 16: 885–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Steptoe A, Feldman PJ. Neighborhood problems as sources of chronic stress: development of a measure of neighborhood problems, and associations with socioeconomic status and health. Ann Behav Med. 2001; 23(3): 177–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Walker RE, Keane CR, Burke JG. Disparities and access to healthy food in the United States: a review of food deserts literature. Health & Place. 2010; 16: 876–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    White K, Borrell LN. Racial/ethnic residential segregation: framing the context of health risk and health disparities. Health & Place. 2011; 17: 438–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Williams DR, Collins C. Racial residential segregation: a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. Public Health Rep. 2001; 116(5): 404–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wright K. Restocking stores: Detroit’s retail market potential. Ann Arbor: Urban & Regional Planning Program, University of Michigan; 2003.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zukin S, Trujillo V, Frase P, Jackson D, Recuber T, Walker A. New retail capital and neighborhood change: boutiques and gentrification in New York City. City & Community. 2009; 8(1): 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naa Oyo A. Kwate
    • 1
  • Ji Meng Loh
    • 2
  • Kellee White
    • 3
  • Nelson Saldana
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Human Ecology, School of Environmental and Biological SciencesRutgers, The State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.AT&T Labs-ResearchFlorham ParkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public HealthUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  4. 4.Department of SociologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations