Advertisement

Journal of Urban Health

, 88:793 | Cite as

Roundtable on Urban Living Environment Research (RULER)

  • David Vlahov
  • Siddharth Raj Agarwal
  • Robert M. Buckley
  • Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa
  • Carlos F. Corvalan
  • Alex Chika Ezeh
  • Ruth Finkelstein
  • Sharon Friel
  • Trudy Harpham
  • Maharufa Hossain
  • Beatriz de Faria Leao
  • Gora Mboup
  • Mark R. Montgomery
  • Julie C. Netherland
  • Danielle C. Ompad
  • Amit Prasad
  • Andrew T. Quinn
  • Alexander Rothman
  • David E. Satterthwaite
  • Sally Stansfield
  • Vanessa J. Watson
Article

Abstract

For 18 months in 2009–2010, the Rockefeller Foundation provided support to establish the Roundtable on Urban Living Environment Research (RULER). Composed of leading experts in population health measurement from a variety of disciplines, sectors, and continents, RULER met for the purpose of reviewing existing methods of measurement for urban health in the context of recent reports from UN agencies on health inequities in urban settings. The audience for this report was identified as international, national, and local governing bodies; civil society; and donor agencies. The goal of the report was to identify gaps in measurement that must be filled in order to assess and evaluate population health in urban settings, especially in informal settlements (or slums) in low- and middle-income countries. Care must be taken to integrate recommendations with existing platforms (e.g., Health Metrics Network, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation) that could incorporate, mature, and sustain efforts to address these gaps and promote effective data for healthy urban management. RULER noted that these existing platforms focus primarily on health outcomes and systems, mainly at the national level. Although substantial reviews of health outcomes and health service measures had been conducted elsewhere, such reviews covered these in an aggregate and perhaps misleading way. For example, some spatial aspects of health inequities, such as those pointed to in the 2008 report from the WHO’s Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, received limited attention. If RULER were to focus on health inequities in the urban environment, access to disaggregated data was a priority. RULER observed that some urban health metrics were already available, if not always appreciated and utilized in ongoing efforts (e.g., census data with granular data on households, water, and sanitation but with little attention paid to the spatial dimensions of these data). Other less obvious elements had not exploited the gains realized in spatial measurement technology and techniques (e.g., defining geographic and social urban informal settlement boundaries, classification of population-based amenities and hazards, and innovative spatial measurement of local governance for health). In summary, the RULER team identified three major areas for enhancing measurement to motivate action for urban health—namely, disaggregation of geographic areas for intra-urban risk assessment and action, measures for both social environment and governance, and measures for a better understanding of the implications of the physical (e.g., climate) and built environment for health. The challenge of addressing these elements in resource-poor settings was acknowledged, as was the intensely political nature of urban health metrics. The RULER team went further to identify existing global health metrics structures that could serve as platforms for more granular metrics specific for urban settings.

Keywords

Social Capital Geographic Information System Urban Setting Informal Settlement Health Information System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Leviton LC, Snell E, McGinnis M. Urban issues in health promotion strategies. Am J Public Health. 2000; 90(6): 863–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    African Population and Health Research Center. Population and Health Dynamics in Nairobi’s Informal Settlements: Report of the Nairobi Cross-Sectional Slums Survey (NCSS) 2000. Nairobi, Kenya: African Population and Health Research Center; 2002.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Geronimus AT. To mitigate, resist, or undo: addressing structural influences on the health of urban populations. Am J Public Health. 2000; 90(6): 867–872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McCord C, Freeman HP. Excess morality in Harlem. N Engl J Med. 1990; 322(3): 173–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Macintyre S, McKay L, Ellaway A. Are rich people or poor people more likely to be ill? Lay perceptions, by social class and neighbourhood, of inequalities in health. Soc Sci Med. 2005; 60(2): 313–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2010. http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/index.htm. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  7. 7.
    UN-HABITAT. State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009: Harmonious Cities. Nairobi, Kenya: UN-HABITAT; 2009.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    UN, P.D. World Population Prospects: The 2000 Revision. New York, NY: United Nations, Population Division; 2000. http://www.un.org/popin/wdtrends.htm. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  9. 9.
    Change of Gini Coefficient by Region (City). Earthscan Web site. http://www.earthscan.co.uk/Portals/0/Files/SotWC%20Data%20Tables/6.%20Change%20of%20Gini%20by%20region%20%28city%29.pdf. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  10. 10.
    McMichael AJ, Woodruff RE, Hales S. Climate change and human health. Lancet. 2006; 367(9513): 859–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    International Panel on Climate Change. Summary for policymakers. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE, eds. Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press; 7–22.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    McMichael AJ, Butler CD, Folke C. New visions for addressing sustainability. Science. 2003; 302(5652): 1919–1920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sharkey P. Survival and death in New Orleans: an empirical look at the human impact of Katrina. J Black Stud. 2007; 37(4): 482–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kjellstrom T, Monge P. Global climate change and cities. In: Vlahov D, Boufford JI, Pearson CE, Norris L, eds. Urban Health: Global Perspectives. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2010.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Luber G, McGeehin M. Climate change and extreme heat events. Am J Prev Med. 2008; 35(5): 429–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Poumadère M, Mays C, Le Mer S, Blong R. The 2003 heat wave in France: dangerous climate change here and now. Risk Anal. 2005; 25(6): 1483–1494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Parsons K. Human Thermal Environments: The Effects of Hot, Moderate and Cold Temperatures on Human Health, Comfort and Performance. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis; 2003.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Knowlton K, Rotkin-Ellman M, King G, et al. The 2006 California heat wave: impacts of hospitalizations and emergency department visits. Environ Health Perspect. 2009; 117(1): 61–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hansen AL, Bi P, Ryan P, Nitschke M, Pisaniello D, Tucker G. The effect of heat waves on hospital admissions for renal disease in a temperate city of Australia. Int J Epidemiol. 2008; 37(6): 1359–1365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kjellstrom T, Butler AJ, Lucas RM, Bonita R. Public health impact of global heating due to climate change: potential effects on chronic non-communicable diseases. Int J Public Health. 2010; 55(2): 97–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bell ML, Goldberg R, Hogrefe C, et al. Climate change, ambient ozone, and health in 50 US cities. Clim Chang. 2007; 82(1–2): 61–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    WHO. Air Quality Guidelines for Particulate Matter, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulphur Dioxide—Global Update 2005—Summary of Risk Assessment. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rose GA. The Strategy of Preventive Medicine. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1992.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Caiaffa WT. RULER White Paper: Background for Group Report. New York, NY: Roundtable for Urban Living Environment Research (RULER); 2009.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Caiaffa, WT. RULER White Paper: Background for Group Report. New York, NY: Roundtable for Urban Living Environment Research (RULER); 2009.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Faguet JP. Does decentralization increase responsiveness to local needs? Evidence from Bolivia. J Public Econ. 2004; 88(3–4): 867–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    United Nations Development Programme. Millennium Development Goals: A Compact among Nations to End Human Poverty. Human Development Report 2003. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Putra BS, Vallespín AF. Democratization of local government (Decentralization). University of Freiburg Web site. http://www.southeastasianstudies.uni-freiburg.de/areastudies/activities/research/democratization-of-local-government-decentralization. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  29. 29.
    Baharoglu D, Kessides C. Urban poverty. In: Klugman J, ed. A Sourcebook for Poverty Reduction Strategies. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications; 2002.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2008.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Global Research Network on Urban Health Equity. Improving Urban Health Equity through Action on the Social and Environmental Determinants of Health. London, England: University College London; 2010.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hidden Cities: Unmasking and Overcoming Health Inequities in Urban Settings. Geneva, Switzerland: The World Health Organization and United Nations Human Settlement Programme.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth. New York, NY: United Nations Population Fund; 2007. State of World Population Report.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Baker J, Schuler N. Analyzing Urban Poverty: A Summary of Methods and Approaches. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3399. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications; 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Montgomery M, Stren R, Cohen B, eds. Cities Transformed: Demographic Change and Its Implications in the Developing World. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Galea S, Vlahov D. Handbook of Urban Health: Population, Methods, and Practice. New York, NY: Springer; 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Montgomery M. Urban poverty and health in developing countries. Popul Bull. 2009; 64(2): 1–16.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    López EA. Unsatisfied basic needs. Aten Primaria. 2005; 35(5): 258–2599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stansfield S. Metrics for urban health: using country-owned systems. Paper presented at: 9th International Conference on Urban Health; October 2009; Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Health Metrics Network. Framework and Standards for Country Health Information Systems. 2nd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2008.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Harpham T. Urban health in developing countries: what do we know and where do we go? Health Place. 2009; 15(1): 107–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Richards TB, Croner CM, Rushton G, Brown CK, Fowler L. Geographic information systems and public health: mapping the future. Public Health Rep. 1999; 114(4): 359–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Linard C, Alegana VA, Noor AM, Snow RW, Tatem AJ. A high resolution spatial population database of Somalia for disease risk mapping. Int J Health Geogr. 2010; 9: 45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Noor AM, Alegana VA, Gething PW, Snow RW. A spatial national health facility database for public health sector planning in Kenya in 2008. Int J Health Geogr. 2009; 8: 13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Noor AM, Alegana VA, Gething PW, Tatem AJ, Snow RW. Using remotely sensed night-time light as a proxy for poverty in Africa. Popul Health Metr. 2008; 6(1): 5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Elvidge CD, Sutton PS, Baugh KE, et al. A global poverty map derived from satellite data. Comput Geosci. 2009; 35(8): 1652–1660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stow DA, Lippitt CD, Weeks JR. Geographic object-based delineation of neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird satellite imagery. Photogramm Eng Remote Sensing. 2010; 76(8): 907–914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ansumana R, Malanoksi AP, Bockarie AS, et al. Enabling methods for community health mapping in developing countries. Int J Health Geogr. 2010; 9: 56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Arputham J. Developing new approaches for people-centred development. Environ Urban. 2008; 20(2): 319–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    We, the Invisible: A Census of Pavement Dwellers. Bombay, India: Society for Promotion of Area Resource Centres; 1985.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Patel S, d’Cruz C, Burra S. Beyond evictions in a global city: people-managed resettlement in Mumbai. Environ Urban. 2002; 14(1): 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Weru J. Community federations and city upgrading: the work of Pamoja Trust and Muungano in Kenya. Environ Urban. 2004; 16(1): 47–62.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sdi/Upfi Factsheet. Shack/Slum Dwellers International (SDI) Web site. http://www.sdinet.org/about-us. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  54. 54.
    Karanja I. An enumeration and mapping of informal settlements in Kisumu, Kenya, implemented by their inhabitants. Environ Urban. 2010; 22(1): 217–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Community Organisation Resource Centre. Profiles of Informal Settlements within the Johannesburg Metropole. Cape Town, South Africa: Community Organisation Resource Centre; 2005.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Community Organisation Resource Centre. Profiles of the Informal Settlements within Cape Town Metropole. Cape Town, South Africa: Community Organisation Resource Centre; 2006.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pamoja Trust and Slum Dwellers International. Nairobi Slum Inventory. Nairobi, Kenya: Pamoja Trust, Urban Poor Fund International and Shack/Slum Dwellers International; 2008.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bartlett S. Water, sanitation and urban children: the need to go beyond ‘improved’ provision. Environ Urban. 2003; 15(2): 57–70.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kaliath M. Factors Affecting the Health Situation of Slum Dwellers of Bangalore. Bangalore, India: Community Health Cell; 1992.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Amis P. Rethinking UK aid in urban India: reflections on an impact assessment study of slum improvement projects. Environ Urban. 2001; 13(1): 101–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Satterthwaite D. Reducing urban poverty: constraints on effectiveness of aid agencies and development banks and some suggestions for change. Environ Urban. 2001; 13(1): 137–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Profile of Pratima Joshi. 2006. http://www.ashoka.org/node/3853. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  63. 63.
    D’Cruz C, Satterthwaite D. The role of urban grassroots organizations and their national federations in reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Glob Urban Dev. 2006; 2(1): 1–17.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Vanden Eng JL, Wolkon A, Frolov AS, et al. Use of handheld computers with global positioning systems for probability sampling and data entry in household surveys. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007; 77(2): 393–399.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Smith SK. Small-area analysis. In: Demeny PG, McNicoll G, eds. Encyclopedia of Population. Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference USA; 2003: 898–901.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hentschel J, Lanjouw JO, Lanjouw P, Poggi J. Combining census and survey data to trace spatial dimensions of poverty: a case study of Ecuador. World Bank Econ Rev. 2000; 14(1): 147–165.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zezza A, Carletto G, Davis B. Moving Away from Poverty: A Spatial Analysis of Poverty and Migration in Albania. ESA Working Paper No. 05-02. Rome, Italy: Agricultural and Development Economics Division, UN Food and Agriculture Organization; 2005.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lowe, J.B. and A. Clavarino. Preventive health behavior. Encyclopedia of Public Health. 2002. http://www.enotes.com/public-health-encyclopedia/preventive-health-behavior. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  69. 69.
    Galea S, Freudenberg N, Vlahov D. Cities and population health. Soc Sci Med. 2005; 60(5): 1017–1033.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    McMichael AJ, Campbell-Lendrum D, Kovats S, et al. Global climate change. In: Ezzati M, Lopez A, Roders A, eds. Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2004: 1543–1650.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    The World Health Organization. Global Health Risks: Morality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks. Geneva, Switzerland: The World Health Organization; 2009.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bartlett S. Climate Change and Urban Children: Impacts and Implications for Adaptation in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Human Settlements Working Paper Series Climate Change and Cities No. 2. London, England: International Institute for Environment and Development; 2008.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Moser C, Satterthwaite D. Toward Pro-poor Adaptation to Climate Change in the Urban Centres of Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Human Settlements Working Paper Series Climate Change and Cities No 3. London, England: International Institute for Environment and Development; 2008.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Satterthwaite D, Huq S, Pelling M, Reid H, Lankao PR. Adapting to Climate Change in Urban Areas: The Possibilities and Constraints in Low- and Middle-Income Nations. Human Settlements Working Paper Series Climate Change and Cities No. 1. London, England: International Institute for Environment and Development; 2008.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Douglas I, Alam K, Maghenda M, et al. Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa. Environ Urban. 2008; 20(1): 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Adelekan IO. Vulnerability of poor urban coastal communities to flooding in Lagos, Nigeria. Environ Urban. 2010; 22(2): 433–450.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kovats S, Akhtar R. Climate, climate change and human health in Asian cities. Environ Urban. 2008; 20(1): 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    World Bank. Climate Resilient Cities: 2008 Primer on Reducing Vulnerabilites to Climate Change Impacts and Strengthening Disaster Risk Management in East Asian Cities. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications; 2008.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Awuor CB, Orindi VA, Adwera AO. Climate change and coastal cities: the case of Mombasa, Kenya. Environ Urban. 2008; 20(1): 231–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hardoy J, Pandiella G. Urban poverty and vulnerability to climate change in Latin America. Environ Urban. 2009; 21(1): 203–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ahern MR, Kovats RS, Wilkinson P, Few R, Matthies F. Global health impacts of floods: epidemiological evidence. Epidemiol Rev. 2005; 27(1): 36–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kovats S, Hajat S. Heat stress and public health: a critical review. Annu Rev Public Health. 2008; 29: 41–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    McGrahanan G, Marcotullio P, Bai X, et al. Urban systems. In: Hassan R, Scholes R, Ash N, eds. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends. Washington, DC: Island Press; 2005: 795–826.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Safriel U, Adeel Z, Niemeijer D, et al. Dryland systems. In: Hassan R, Scholes R, Ash N, eds. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends. Washington, DC: Island Press; 2005: 625–664.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Showers KB. Water scarity and urban Africa: an overview of urban–rural water linkages. World Dev. 2002; 30(4): 621–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Muller M. Adapting to climate change: water management for urban resilience. Environ Urban. 2007; 19(1): 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Adamo SB, de Sherbinin A. The Impact of Climate Change on the Spatial Distribution of Populations and Migration: A Report prepared for Unived Nations Population Division. Palisades, NY: Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Earth Institute, Columbia University; 2008: 32.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hajat S, Armstrong DG, Gouveia N, Wilkinson P. Mortality displacement of heat-related deaths: a comparison of Delhi, Sao Paulo and London. Epidemiology. 2005; 16(5): 613–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ishigami A, Hajat S, Kovats RS, et al. An ecological time-series study of heat-related mortality in three European cities. Environ Health. 2008; 7: 5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lloyd SJ, Kovats RS, Armstrong BG. Global diarrhoea morbidity, weather and climate. Clim Res. 2007; 34(2): 119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tan J, Zheng Y, Song G, et al. Heat wave impacts on mortality in Shanghai, 1998 and 2003. Int J Biometerol. 2007; 51(3): 193–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    The World Health Organization. Heat-Health Action Plans: Guidance. Geneva, Switzerland: The World Health Organization; 2008.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gage KL, Burkot TR, Eisen RJ, Hayes EB. Climate and vectorborne diseases. Am J Prev Med. 2008; 35(5): 436–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Campbell-Lendrum D, Woodruff R. Comparative risk assessment of the burden of disease from climate change. Environ Health Perspect. 2006; 114(12): 1935–1941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    United Nations Development Programme. Reducing Disaster Risk: A Challenge for Development. New York, NY: Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, United Nations Development Program; 2004.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), MEASURE Evaluation, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Associates for Community and Population Research (ACPR). 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey. Chapel Hill, NC: NIPORT, MEASURE Evaluation, ICDDR,B, and ACPR; 2008.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Derose K, Varda DM. Social capital and health care access: a systematic review. Med Care Res Rev. 2009; 66(3): 272–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Berkman LF, Kawachi I. Social Epidemiology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Freudenberg N. Health promotion in the city: a review of current practice and future prospects in the United States. Ann Rev Public Health. 2000; 21: 473–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Berkman LF, Glass T, Brissette I, Seeman TE. From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Soc Sci Med. 2000; 51(6): 843–857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hillemeier M, Lynch J, Harper S, Casper M. Data Set Directory of Social Determinants of Health at the Local Level. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2004.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lochner K, Kawachi I, Kennedy BP. Social capital: a guide to its measurement. Health Place. 1999; 5(4): 259–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wilson K, Elliot S, Law M, et al. Linking perceptions of neighbourhood to health in Hamilton, Canada. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004; 58(3): 192–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Yang MJ, Yang MS, Shih CH, Kawachi I. Development and validation of an instrument to measure perceived neighbourhood quality in Taiwan. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2002; 56(7): 492–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Harpham T, Grant E, Thomas E. Measuring social capital in surveys: key issues. Health Policy Plan. 2002; 17(1): 106–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Witten K, Exeter D, Field A. The quality of urban environments: mapping variation in access to community resources. Urban Stud. 2003; 40(1): 161–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Yen IH, Kaplan GA. Neighborhood social environment and risk of death: multilevel evidence from the Alameda County Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1999; 149(10): 898–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kawachi I, Kennedy BP. Income inequality and health: pathways and mechanisms. Health Serv Res. 1999; 34(1 Pt 2): 215–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kawachi I. Commentary: social capital and health: making the connections one step at a time. Int J Epidemiol. 2006; 35(4): 989–993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Harpham T, Boateng KA. Urban governance in relation to the operation of urban services in developing countries. Habitat Int. 1997; 21(1): 65–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Stewart K. Designing good urban governance indicators: the importance of citizen participation and its evaluation in Greater Vancouver. Cities. 2006; 23(3): 196–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Bouckaert G, van de Walle S. Comparing measures of citizen trust and user satisfaction as indicators of ‘good governance’: difficulties in linking trust and satisfaction indicators. Int Rev Adm Sci. 2003; 69(3): 329–343.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Thomas MA. What Do the Worldwise Governance Indicators Measure? Washington, DC: World Bank Publications; 2006.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ruel MT, Garrett JL. Features of urban food and nutrition security and considerations for successful urban programming. Electronic J Agric Dev Econ. 2004; 1(2): 242–271.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Radimer KL, Olson CM, Campbell CC. Understanding hunger and developing indicators to assess it in women and children. J Nutr Educ. 1992; 24(Suppl 1): 36–44.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Segall-Corrêa AM, Pérez-Escamilla R, Maranha LK, et al. Projeto, acompanhamento e avaliação da segurança alimentar de famílias brasileiras: validação de metodologia e de instrumento de coleta de informação. Campinas, Brazil: Departamento de Medicina Preventiva e Social, Universidade Estadual de Campinas/Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde/Ministério de Saúde (Relatório Técnico); 2004.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bickel G, Nord M, Price C, Hamilton W, Cook J. Measuring Food Security in the United States: Guide to Measuring Household Food Security. Alexandria, VA: Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 2000.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Radimer KL, Olson CM, Greene JC, Campbell CC, Habicht J-P. Understanding hunger and developing indicators to assess it in women and children. J Nutr Educ. 1992; 24(1 Suppl): 36–44.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Messer LC. Invited commentary: beyond the metrics for measuring neighborhood effects. Am J Epidemiol. 2007; 165(8): 868–871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Diez Roux AV. Investigating neighborhood and area effects on health. Am J Pubilc Health. 2001; 91(11): 1783–1789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Mansfield CJ, Wilson JL. Community-level data. N C Med J. 2008; 69(2): 142–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Watson V. Urban planning and twenty-first century cities: can it meet the challenge? In: Garland AM, Massoumi M, Ruble BA, eds. Global Urban Poverty: Setting the Agenda. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars; 2007: 205–238.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Daniels J, Schulz AJ. Whiteness and the construction of health disparities. In: Schulz AJ, Mullings L, eds. Gender, Race, Class, and Health. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2005: 89–131.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Angeles G, Lance P, Barden-O’Fallen J, et al. The 2005 census and mapping of slums in Bangladesh; design, select results and application. Int J Health Geogr. 2009; 8: 32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sen S, Hobson J, Joshi P. The Pune Slum Census: creating a socio-economic and spatial information base on a GIS for integrated and inclusive city development. Habitat Int. 2003; 27(4): 595–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Čulík J. Counting czechs: the census controversy. Cent Eur Rev. 2001; 3(6). http://www.ce-review.org/01/6/culik6.html. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  127. 127.
    Srebotnjak T, Mokdad AH, Murray CJ. A novel framework for validating and applying standardized small area measurement strategies. Popul Health Metr. 2010; 8: 26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Agarwal S, Taneja S. All slums are not equal: child health services among the urban poor. Indian Pediatr. 2005; 42: 233–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Agarwal S, Satyavada A, Patra P, Kumar R. Strengthening functional community-provider linkages: lessons from the Indore urban health programme. Global Public Health. 2008; 3: 308–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Government of India, 2006, Draft Final Report of the Task Force to Advise the National Rural Health Mission on “Strategies for Urban Health Care” Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi. http://164.100.52.110/NRHM/Task_grp/Report_of_UHTF_5May2006.pdf. Accessed May 28, 2011.
  131. 131.
    Gupta K, Arnold F, Lhungdim H. Health and Living Conditions in Eight Indian Cities; National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), India, 2005–2006, Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences; Calverton. Calverton, MD: ICF Macro; 2009.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. National Urban Health Mission: Draft for Comments. New Delhi, India: Government of India; 2008.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. National Urban Health Mission: Framework for Implementation, Draft for Discussion. New Delhi, India: Government of India; June 2010.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation. Rajiv Awas Yojana: Guidelines for Slum-Free Planning. New Delhi, India: Government of India. 2010.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, International. https://international.ipums.org/international. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  136. 136.
    Aker J, Mbiti I. Mobile phones and economic development in Africa. J Econ Perspect. 2010; 24(3): 207–232.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Communication Commission of Kenya. Quarterly Sector Statistics Report: 2nd Quarter, Oct–Dec 2009/2010. http://www.cck.go.ke/resc/statistics/Sector_Statistics_Report_Q2_2009-2010.pdf. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  138. 138.
    Wanja J. Kenya: 80 Percent of Vote Results to Be Relayed Electronically. AllAfria.com Web site. http://allafrica.com/stories/201008021571.html. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  139. 139.
    Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Maps. http://www.fema.gov/hazard/map/index.shtm. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  140. 140.
    United Nations Institute for Training and Research. Unitar’s Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT). http://www.unitar.org/unosat. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  141. 141.
    UN-HABITAT. Global Campaign on Urban Governance. http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=25. Accessed November 28, 2010.
  142. 142.
    WHO Kobe Centre. Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART). http://www.who.or.jp/urbanheart. Accessed August 25, 2010.
  143. 143.
    Chan M, Kazatchkine M, Lob-Levyt J, et al. Meeting the Demand for Results and Accountability: A Call for Action on Health Data from Eight Global Health Agencies. PLoS Med. 2010; 7(1). doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000223

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Vlahov
    • 1
  • Siddharth Raj Agarwal
    • 2
  • Robert M. Buckley
    • 3
  • Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa
    • 4
  • Carlos F. Corvalan
    • 5
  • Alex Chika Ezeh
    • 6
  • Ruth Finkelstein
    • 7
  • Sharon Friel
    • 8
  • Trudy Harpham
    • 9
  • Maharufa Hossain
    • 10
  • Beatriz de Faria Leao
    • 11
  • Gora Mboup
    • 10
  • Mark R. Montgomery
    • 12
  • Julie C. Netherland
    • 7
  • Danielle C. Ompad
    • 13
  • Amit Prasad
    • 14
  • Andrew T. Quinn
    • 7
  • Alexander Rothman
    • 7
  • David E. Satterthwaite
    • 15
  • Sally Stansfield
    • 16
  • Vanessa J. Watson
    • 17
  1. 1.University of California, San Francisco School of NursingSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Urban Health Resource CenterNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Rockefeller FoundationNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Federal University, Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  5. 5.Pan American Health OrganizationWashingtonUSA
  6. 6.African Population and Health Research CenterNairobiKenya
  7. 7.New York Academy of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  8. 8.Australian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  9. 9.London South Bank UniversityLondonEngland
  10. 10.UN-HABITATNairobiKenya
  11. 11.Bleao Informática em SalúdeSão PauloBrazil
  12. 12.Population CouncilNew YorkUSA
  13. 13.New York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  14. 14.World Health Organization, Center for Human DevelopmentKobeJapan
  15. 15.International Institute for Environment and DevelopmentLondonEngland
  16. 16.Health Metrics Network World Health OrganizationGenevaSwitzerland
  17. 17.African Center for Cities, University of CapetownCapetownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations