Skip to main content

Table 5 Multivariate analysis of nutritional status and food security of orphans and non-orphans (n = 1,167), Nairobi informal settlements, Kenya, 2007

From: Food Security and Nutritional Outcomes among Urban Poor Orphans in Nairobi, Kenya

  Food security score (coefficient) Height-for-age z score (coefficient) Weight-for-age z score (coefficient) Stunting (coefficient) Underweight (coefficient)
1. Fixed effects      
Orphan status (ref = non-orphan)      
 Orphans −1.39*** 0.11 0.10 −0.07 −0.05
 Sex of child (ref = male)      
Female 0.55* 0.30*** 0.28*** −0.70*** −0.34*
Child age (in years, continuous) 0.02 −0.17*** −0.08*** 0.31*** 0.19***
 Household head relationship (ref = parent)      
Other relative 1.7*** 0.00 −0.08 0.29 0.15
Nonrelative 1.01 −0.13 0.04 0.47 −0.03
Ethnicity (ref = Kikuyu)      
 Luhya −1.90*** 0.11 0.26*** −0.34 −0.64*
 Luo −2.55*** 0.36*** 0.34*** −0.98*** −0.91***
 Other −0.45 0.08 −0.13* −0.19 0.33
Household head sex (ref = male)      
 Female −2.36*** 0.02 0.11* −0.19 −0.08
Household head age (ref = 35–49 years)      
 Less than 35 years 0.27 0.10 0.03 0.14 −0.31
 50+ years −0.79 0.27** 0.09 −0.35 −0.21
Household head education (ref = none)      
 Primary 0.13 0.02 0.05 0.01 −0.36
 Secondary and above 0.54 0.00 0.06 −0.07 −0.80**
Number of children <15 years in household (continuous) −0.64*** −0.01 −0.03** 0.07 0.04
Household wealth (ref = low)      
 Middle 1.58*** −0.06 −0.06 0.21 0.26
 Least poor 2.08*** 0.12 0.09 0.04 −0.03
 Food security score 0.00 −0.00 −0.01 −0.01
Area of residence (ref = Korogocho)      
 Viwandani 1.28** −0.16 0.02 0.60** 0.12
2. Random effects      
 Household level variance (95% CI) 5.94 (5.62–6.28) 0.50 (0.32–0.80) 0.40 (0.30–0.54) 0.35 (0.15–0.62) 0.05 (0.00–0.99)
  1. Significant difference by orphan status: *p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01