An outline of the varieties of the second-order systems sciences

  • Karl H. Müller


The systems sciences are based on a universal language of systems which can be used within most academic disciplines in their endeavors for exploring the world. Currently, systems sciences cover a wide variety of different approaches like complex adaptive systems, resilient systems or systems engineering. One of the future extensions of the systems sciences comes through the applications of second-order systems science as a new field of reflexive studies on first-order systems science. This article provides a general background on the relations of first-order science and second-order science in general and then goes on to sketch a basic outline for the second-order systems sciences and their potentials for quality control and for innovations for the first-order systems sciences.


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© Systems Engineering Society of China and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Academy for Systems Science and CyberneticsSteinbeis Transfer Center New CyberneticsViennaAustria

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