Long-term hemodynamic mechanism of enhanced external counterpulsation in the treatment of coronary heart disease: a geometric multiscale simulation

  • Bao Li
  • Wenxin Wang
  • Boyan Mao
  • Haisheng Yang
  • Haijun Niu
  • Jianhang Du
  • Xiaoling Li
  • Youjun LiuEmail author
Original Article


Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive treatment method for coronary artery atherosclerosis that acts on the vascular endothelial cells. The intracoronary hemodynamic parameters that influence long-term treatment effect are the fundamental factors for the inhibition of intimal hyperplasia, which cannot be measured in real time. In order to optimize the long-term treatment effect of coronary heart disease, it is necessary to establish a method for quantified calculation of intracoronary hemodynamic parameters during counterpulsation to research the long-term hemodynamic mechanism of EECP. A geometric multiscale model coupled by the zero-dimensional (0D) lumped parameter model and the three-dimensional (3D) model of narrow coronary artery was established for the simulation of intracoronary hemodynamic environment. The 3D model was used to calculate the hemodynamic parameters such as wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), while the 0D model was used to simulate the blood circulatory system. Sequential pressure was applied to calves, thighs, and buttocks module in 0D model with the consideration of vessel collapse. Hemodynamic performance was compared with clinical reports to verify the effectiveness of the method. There were significant increases of the diastolic blood pressure (DBP), coronary flow, and the area-averaged WSS during application of EECP, while OSI behind stenosis has some decrease. The waveforms of coronary flow has good similarity with the clinical measured waveforms, and the differences between calculated mean arterial pressures (MAPs) and clinical measurements were within 1%. The fundamental factor in the cure of coronary heart disease by EECP is the improvement of WSS and the decrease of OSI. Comparing with the clinical reports, the immediate hemodynamic changes demonstrate the effectiveness of model. Intracoronary hemodynamic parameters during EECP could be acquired and the method could be used to simulate the long-term treatment effect of EECP.

Graphical abstract


Enhanced external counterpulsation Coronary artery Long-term hemodynamic mechanism Hemodynamic parameters Geometric multiscale simulation 


Funding Information

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11832003, 11772016, 11472022, 11702008), the Key Project of Science and Technology of Beijing Municipal Education Commission (KZ201810005007), the Support Plan for High-level Faculties in Beijing Municipal Universities (CIT&TCD201804011), and the Beijing Excellent Talents Funds (2017000020124G277).


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Copyright information

© International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Life Science and BioengineeringBeijing University of TechnologyBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Biological Science and Medical EngineeringBeihang UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.The Eighth Affiliated HospitalSun Yat-sen UniversityShenzhenChina

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