Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

, Volume 54, Issue 7, pp 1097–1109 | Cite as

Fluid flow and particle transport in mechanically ventilated airways. Part II: particle transport

  • Mohammed Alzahrany
  • Timothy Van Rhein
  • Arindam Banerjee
  • Gary Salzman
Original Article

Abstract

The flow mechanisms that play a role on aerosol deposition were identified and presented in a companion paper (Timothy et al. in Med Biol Eng Comput. doi:10.1007/s11517-015-1407-3, 2015). In the current paper, the effects of invasive conventional mechanical ventilation waveforms and endotracheal tube (ETT) on the aerosol transport were investigated. In addition to the enhanced deposition seen at the carinas of the airway bifurcations, enhanced deposition was also seen in the right main bronchus due to impaction and turbulent dispersion resulting from the fluid structures created by jet caused by the ETT. The orientation of the ETT toward right bronchus resulted in a substantial deposition inside right lung compared to left lung. The deposition inside right lung was ~12-fold higher than left lung for all considered cases, except for the case of using pressure-controlled sinusoidal waveform where a reduction of this ratio by ~50 % was found. The total deposition during pressure constant, volume ramp, and ascending ramp waveforms was similar and ~1.44 times higher than deposition fraction when using pressure sinusoidal waveform. Varying respiratory waveform demonstrated a significant role on the deposition enhancement factors and give evidence of drug aerosol concentrations in key deposition sites, which may be significant for drugs with negative side effects in high concentrations. These observations are thought to be important for ventilation treatment strategy.

Keywords

Particle deposition Large eddy simulation Local particle deposition Endotracheal tube Mechanical ventilation 

References

  1. 1.
    Alzahrany M, Banerjee A, Salzman G (2014) Flow transport and gas mixing during invasive high frequency oscillatory ventilation. Med Eng Phys 36:647–658CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Balashazy I, Hofmann W, Heistracher T (1999) Computation of local enhancement factors for the quantification of particle deposition patterns in airway bifurcations. J Aerosol Sci 30:185–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cherukat P, Mclaughlin JB (1994) The inertial lift on a rigid sphere in a linear shear flow field near a flat wall. J Fluid Mech 263:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Comer JK, Kleinstreuer C, Kim CS (2001) Flow structures and particle deposition patterns in double-bifurcation airway models. Part 2. Aerosol transport and deposition. J Fluid Mech 435:55–80Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dhand R (2003) Maximizing aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation: go with the flow and go slow. Intensiv Care Med 29:1041–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dhand R (2008) Aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation: from basic techniques to new devices. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 21:45–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Finlay W (2001) The mechanics of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gibson B (2001) Long-term ventilation for patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy: physicians’ beliefs and practices. Chest 119:940–946CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gonda I (2000) The ascent of pulmonary drug delivery. J Pharm Sci 89:940–945CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hess DR, Myers TR, Rau JL (2007) A guide to aerosol delivery devices for respiratory therapists. American Association for Respiratory Care, IrvingGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Inthavong K, Choi LT, Tu J, Ding S, Thien F (2010) Micron particle deposition in a tracheobronchial airway model under different breathing conditions. Med Eng Phys 32:1198–1212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jiyuan T, Inthavong K, Ahmadi G (2013) Computational Fluid and particle dynamics in the human respiratory system. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim CS, Garcia L (1991) Particle deposition in cyclic bifurcating tube flow. Aerosol Sci Technol 14:302–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim CS, Iglesias AJ (1989) Deposition of inhaled particles in bifurcating airway models: I. Inspiratory deposition. J Aerosol Med 2:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kleinstreuer C, Zhang Z (2010) Airflow and particle transport in the human respiratory system. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 42:301–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lambert AR, O’Shaughnessy P, Tawhai MH, Hoffman EA, Lin C-L (2011) Regional deposition of particles in an image-based airway model: large-eddy simulation and left-right lung ventilation asymmetry. Aerosol Sci Technol 45:11–25CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li A, Ahmadi G (1992) Dispersion and deposition of spherical particles from point sources in a turbulent channel flow. Aerosol Sci Technol 16:209–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li Z, Kleinstreuer C (2011) Airflow analysis in the alveolar region using the lattice-Boltzmann method. Med Biol Eng Comput 49:441–451CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Longest PW, Azimi M, Golshahi L, Hindle M (2013) Improving aerosol drug delivery during invasive mechanical ventilation with redesigned components. Respir Care 59(5):686–698. doi:10.4187/respcare.02782 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Longest PW, Golshahi L, Hindle M (2013) Improving pharmaceutical aerosol delivery during noninvasive ventilation: effects of streamlined components. Ann Biomed Eng 41:1217–1232CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Longest PW, Tian G, Walenga R, Hindle M (2012) Comparing MDI and DPI aerosol deposition using in vitro experiments and a new stochastic individual path (SIP) model of the conducting airways. Pharm Res 29:1670–1688CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Luo HY, Liu Y (2009) Particle deposition in a CT-scanned human lung airway. J Biomech 42:1869–1876CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morsi SA, Alexander AJ (1972) An investigation of particle trajectories in two-phase flow systems. J Fluid Mech 55:193–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nicoud F, Ducros F (1999) Subgrid-scale stress modelling based on the square of the velocity gradient tensor. Flow Turbul Combust 62:183–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pascal S, Diot P, Lemarie E (1992) Antibiotics in aerosols. Rev Mal Respir 9:145–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shi H, Kleinstreuer C, Zhang Z, Kim CS (2004) Nanoparticle transport and deposition in bifurcating tubes with different inlet conditions. Phys Fluids 16:2199–2213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Timothy VR, Alzahrany M, Banerjee A, Salzman G (2015) Fluid flow and particle transport in mechanically ventilated airways. Part I. Fluid flow structures. Med Biol Eng Comput. doi:10.1007/s11517-015-1407-3 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Xi J, Longest PW (2007) Transport and deposition of micro-aerosols in realistic and simplified models of the oral airway. Ann Biomed Eng 35:560–581CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Xi J, Longest PW, Martonen TB (2008) Effects of the laryngeal jet on nano- and micro-particle transport and deposition in an approximate model of the upper tracheobronchial airways. J Appl Physiol 104:1761–1777CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhang Z, Kleinstreuer C (2011) Laminar-to-turbulent fluid–nanoparticle dynamics simulations: model comparisons and nanoparticle-deposition applications. Int J Numer Methods Biomed Eng 27:1930–1950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang Z, Kleinstreuer C, Donohue JF, Kim CS (2005) Comparison of micro- and nano-size particle depositions in a human upper airway model. J Aerosol Sci 36:211–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhang Z, Kleinstreuer C, Kim CS (2008) Airflow and nanoparticle deposition in a 16-generation tracheobronchial airway model. Ann Biomed Eng 36:2095–2110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang L, Kleinstreuer C, Zhang Z (2007) Simulation of airflow fields and microparticle deposition in realistic human lung airway models. Part II: particle transport and deposition. Eur J Mech B/Fluids 26:650–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed Alzahrany
    • 1
  • Timothy Van Rhein
    • 2
  • Arindam Banerjee
    • 1
  • Gary Salzman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Packard LaboratoryLehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringMissouri University of Science and TechnologyRollaUSA
  3. 3.Respiratory and Critical Care MedicineUniversity of Missouri-Kansas City School of MedicineKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations