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Computational modeling of the human atrial anatomy and electrophysiology

Abstract

This review article gives a comprehensive survey of the progress made in computational modeling of the human atria during the last 10 years. Modeling the anatomy has emerged from simple “peanut”-like structures to very detailed models including atrial wall and fiber direction. Electrophysiological models started with just two cellular models in 1998. Today, five models exist considering e.g. details of intracellular compartments and atrial heterogeneity. On the pathological side, modeling atrial remodeling and fibrotic tissue are the other important aspects. The bridge to data that are measured in the catheter laboratory and on the body surface (ECG) is under construction. Every measurement can be used either for model personalization or for validation. Potential clinical applications are briefly outlined and future research perspectives are suggested.

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Abbreviations

AF:

Atrial fibrillation

AP:

Action potential

APD:

Action potential duration

BB:

Bachmann’s bundle

BCL:

Basic cycle length

BSP(M):

Body surface potential (map)

CS:

Coronary sinus

CT:

Crista terminalis

CT:

Computed tomography

CV:

Conduction velocity

ECG:

Electrocardiogram

EP:

Electrophysiology

ERP:

Effective refractory period

IVC:

Inferior vena cava

LA:

Left atrium

LAA:

Left atrial appendage

LIPV:

Left inferior pulmonary vein

LE-MRI:

Late enhancement MRI

LSPV:

Left superior pulmonary vein

MRI:

Magnetic resonance imaging

PM:

Pectinate muscle

PV:

Pulmonary vein

PWd:

P-wave duration

RA:

Right atrium

RAA:

Right atrial appendage

RF(A):

Radio frequency (ablation)

RIPV:

Right inferior pulmonary vein

RSPV:

Right superior pulmonary vein

SN:

Sinus node

SVC:

Superior vena cava

TEE:

Transesophageal echocardiogram

WL:

Wave length

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Acknowledgments

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 224495 (euHeart project). The work of M. Wilhelms was supported by the German Research Foundation under Grant DFG SE 1758/3-1.

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Dössel, O., Krueger, M.W., Weber, F.M. et al. Computational modeling of the human atrial anatomy and electrophysiology. Med Biol Eng Comput 50, 773–799 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11517-012-0924-6

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Keywords

  • Cardiac modeling
  • Atrial arrhythmia
  • Radio frequency ablation
  • Remodeling
  • Intraatrial electrograms