Combined motor imagery and SSVEP based BCI control of a 2 DoF artificial upper limb


A Brain–Computer Interface (BCI) is a device that transforms brain signals, which are intentionally modulated by a user, into control commands. BCIs based on motor imagery (MI) and steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) can partially restore motor control in spinal cord injured patients. To determine whether these BCIs can be combined for grasp and elbow function control independently, we investigated a control method where the beta rebound after brisk feet MI is used to control the grasp function, and a two-class SSVEP-BCI the elbow function of a 2 degrees-of-freedom artificial upper limb. Subjective preferences for the BCI control were assessed with a questionnaire. The results of the initial evaluation of the system suggests that this is feasible.

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This work was supported by EU COST Action BM0601 (Neuromath) and Wings for Life - Spinal Cord Research Foundation (WFL-SE-016/09). We are indebted to V. Kaiser and L. Deuse for assistance in data recording.

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Correspondence to Petar Horki.

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Horki, P., Solis-Escalante, T., Neuper, C. et al. Combined motor imagery and SSVEP based BCI control of a 2 DoF artificial upper limb. Med Biol Eng Comput 49, 567–577 (2011).

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  • Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)
  • Brain–computer interface (BCI)
  • Neuroprostheses