An overview of pyrethroid insecticides
Pesticides are used to control various pests of agricultural crops worldwide. Despite their agricultural benefits, pesticides are often considered a serious threat to the environment because of their persistence. Pyrethroids are synthetic derivates of pyrethrins, which are natural organic insecticides procured from the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum. Pyrethroids are classified into two groups—class I and class II—based on their toxicity and physical properties. These pyrethroids are now used in many synthetic insecticides and are highly specific against insects; they are generally used against mosquitoes. The prominent site of insecticidal action of pyrethroids is the voltage-sensitive sodium channels.
Methods and Results
Pyrethroids are found to be stable, and they persist in the environment for a long period. This article provides an overview of the different classes, structure, and insecticidal properties of pyrethroid. Furthermore, the toxicity of pyrethroids is also discussed with emphasis on bioremediation to alleviate pollution.
The article focuses on various microorganisms used in the degradation of pyrethroids, the molecular basis of degradation, and the role of carboxylesterase enzymes and genes in the detoxification of pyrethroid.
Keywordspyrethrin carboxylesterase enzyme mineralization microbial degradation toxicity
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The authors are grateful to the Management, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003). Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids. US Department of Health and Human Services, pp: 238.Google Scholar
- Ali H Y, Aboul-Enein (2004). Chiral Pollutants. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
- Bloomquist J R (1993a). Neuroreceptor mechanisms in pyrethroid mode of action and resistance. Rev Pestic Toxic, 2:184–230Google Scholar
- Bryant R, Bite M G (2003). Global Insecticide Directory, 3rd ed. Orpington, Kent UKGoogle Scholar
- Fishel F M (2005). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Synthetic Pyrethroid Pesticides. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural SciencesGoogle Scholar
- Gan J, Lee S J, Liu W P, Haver D L, Kabashina J N (2005). Effects On Non-Target Organisms In Terrestrial And Aquatic Environments. In: Leahey JP (Ed.) The Pyrethroid Insecticides, Taylor and Francis, London, UKGoogle Scholar
- Glomot R (1982). Toxicity of deltamethrin to higher vertebrates, Deltamethrin (Monograph). Roussel-Uclaf Research Centre, France, 4: 109–136Google Scholar
- Gosselin R E (1984). Clinic Toxicological of Commercial Products, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, USAGoogle Scholar
- Guo P, Wang B Z, Hang B J, Li L, Ali S W, He J, Li S P (2009). Pyrethroid degrading Sphingobium sp. JZ-2 and the purification and characterization of a novel pyrethroid hydrolase. Int. Biodeter. Biodegr, 63(8): 1107–1112Google Scholar
- Kurihara N, Mayamoto J (1998). Chirality in Agrochemicals, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
- Lee S H, Smith T J, Knipple D C, Soderlund D M (1999). Mutations in the house fly Vssc1 sodium channel gene associated with super-kdr resistance abolish the pyrethroid sensitivity of Vssc1/tipE sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Insect Biochem Mol Biol, 29(2): 185–194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mueller-Beilsehmidt D (1990). Toxicology and Environmental fate of synthetic pyrethroids. J Pestic Reform, 10(3): 32–37Google Scholar
- Soderlund D M (1997). Molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In: Sjut, V. (Ed.), Molecular Mechanisms of Resistance to Agrochemicals. Springer, Berlin 21–56Google Scholar
- WHO (1989). Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for Cypermethrin. Environmental Health Criteria 82.Google Scholar
- Geneva, WHO WHO (1990). Permethrin. In: Environmental Health Criteria, vol. 94.Google Scholar
- WHO, Geneva Wu P C, Liu Y H, Wang Z Y, Zhang X Y, Li H, Liang WQ, Luo N, Hu J M, Lu J Q, Luan T G, Cao L X (2006). Molecular cloning, purification, and biochemical characterization of a novel pyrethroidhydrolyzing esterase from Klebsiella sp. strain ZD112. J Agric Food Chem, 54(3): 836–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yang Z H, Mishimura M, Nishimura K, Kuroda S, Fujita T (1987). Quantitative structure–activity studies of pyrethroids. Ch.12: physicochemical substituent effects of meta-phenoxybenzyl disubstituted acetates on insecticidal activity. Pestic Biochem Physiol, 29(3): 217–232Google Scholar
- Zerba E N (1999). Susceptibility and resistance to insecticides of Chagas disease vectors. Medicina (B Aires), 59(Suppl 2): 41–46Google Scholar