The radial organization of neuronal primary cilia is acutely disrupted by seizure and ischemic brain injury
Neuronal primary cilia are sensory organelles that are critically involved in the proper growth, development, and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent work also suggests that they signal in the context of CNS injury, and that abnormal ciliary signaling may be implicated in neurological diseases.
We quantified the distribution of neuronal primary cilia alignment throughout the normal adult mouse brain by immunohistochemical staining for the primary cilia marker adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII) and measuring the angles of primary cilia with respect to global and local coordinate planes. We then introduced two different models of acute brain insult—temporal lobe seizure and cerebral ischemia, and re-examined neuronal primary cilia distribution, as well as ciliary lengths and the proportion of neurons harboring cilia.
Under basal conditions, cortical cilia align themselves radially with respect to the cortical surface, while cilia in the dentate gyrus align themselves radially with respect to the granule cell layer. Cilia of neurons in the striatum and thalamus, by contrast, exhibit a wide distribution of ciliary arrangements. In both cases of acute brain insult, primary cilia alignment was significantly disrupted in a region-specific manner, with areas affected by the insult preferentially disrupted. Further, the two models promoted differential effects on ciliary lengths, while only the ischemia model decreased the proportion of ciliated cells.
These findings provide evidence for the regional anatomical organization of neuronal primary cilia in the adult brain and suggest that various brain insults may disrupt this organization.
Keywordscerebral cortex dentate gyrus temporal lobe seizure cerebral ischemia
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This work was supported by 1R21AG046875 and R01NS089770 to S.G., 1F30MH110103 to G.W.K., and departmental internal funding to Q.X., and the Simons Summer Research Program (SSRP) to Tracy Lang.
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