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Emulsifiers from Yellow Split Peas

Abstract

Extracts with emulsifying capacity have been extracted from split peas (Pisum sativum). At pH 7 and extract concentrations above 0.75 g L−1 s, stable emulsions were produced, with droplets of tens μm. At higher concentrations (2 g L−1 s) bridging flocculation occurs, with the flocs breaking up into μm-sized particles upon SDS addition, reaching sizes comparable to those obtained by oilve compost emulsifiers. At even higher concentrations, depletion flocculation is observed due to unadsorbed extracts. The extract cannot emulsify at pH 3. In all cases, the interfacial tension is quickly reduced (at a higher degree at pH 7) due to the fast adsorption of small-molecular surfactants. Within 10 s further reductions are observed, as macromolecules are adsorbed, forming steric layers at the oil – water interface at pH 7. At pH 3 the adsorption of the macromolecules reduces the interfacial tension to a smaller extent, and is followed by a slower (over 100 s) rearrangement at the interface. Coupled with a change in zeta potential from 10.8 ± 0.6 mV at pH 7 down to 4.1 ± 2.2 mV at pH 3, these phenomena render the interfacial layer at pH 3 unable to stabilize against coalescence. Size exclusion chromatography of the extract, the emulsion serum and the cream layer highlight the preferential adsorption of specific biopolymers at the interface and confirm the hypothesis of the sequential adsorption and interfacial rearrangements. Fourier transform infrared spectra show that proteins are preferably adsorbed at the interface, while polysaccharides remain at the bulk phase.

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge support of this work by the project “Valorization of Olive Mill Waste for the development of high added value products.” (MIS 5006879) which is implemented under the Action “Targeted Actions to Promote Research and Technology in Areas of Regional Specialization and New Competitive Areas in International Level” funded bythe Operational Programme “Ionian Islands 2014-2020” and co-financed by Greece and the European Union (European Regional Development Fund).

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Rountou E. (elef.rountou@gmail.com): Investigation, Formal analysis, Writing–Review & Editing.

Taplidis K. (kostastap21@hotmail.com): Investigation

Georgakoudis G. (georgakoudis@mail.com): Investigation

Georgiou D. (dgeorgio@food.teithe.gr): Investigation, Formal analysis

Kalogianni E.P. (elekalo@food.teithe.gr): Formal analysis

Mourtzinos I. 0000-0002-5688-7136 (mourtzinos@agro.auth.gr): Formal analysis

Kyriakoudi A. (ankyria@chem.auth.gr): Investigation

Giotis C. (hgiotis@ionio.gr): Funding acquisition, Conceptualization

Ritzoulis C. 0000-0001-9074-9979 (critzou@ihu.gr): Conceptualization, Writing–Review & Editing, Supervision, Formal analysis

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Correspondence to C. Ritzoulis.

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Rountou, E., Taplidis, K., Georgakoudis, G. et al. Emulsifiers from Yellow Split Peas. Food Biophysics (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11483-022-09757-4

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11483-022-09757-4

Keywords

  • Split pea
  • Extraction
  • Emulsifier
  • Emulsion
  • Interfacial tension
  • Particle sizing