Food Biophysics

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 186–197 | Cite as

Rheological Properties of Aqueous Dispersions of Xanthan Gum Containing Different Chloride Salts Are Impacted by both Sizes and Net Electric Charges of the Cations

  • Zoila Rosa Nieto Galván
  • Lucas de Souza Soares
  • Eber Antonio Alves Medeiros
  • Nilda de Fátima Ferreira Soares
  • Afonso Mota Ramos
  • Jane Sélia dos Reis Coimbra
  • Eduardo Basílio de Oliveira


Xanthan gum (XG) is one of the most effective thickener agents used worldwide. In foods products, one of the factors affecting its physical properties is the ionic strength of the medium. Though it is well known that XG rheological properties in aqueous media depend on both type and concentration of electrolytes, correlations between such dispersion properties and molecular aspects of dispersed XG chains are still to be more deeply studied. Thus, in the present study, aqueous XG dispersions [200 mg⋅(100 mL)−1] added of Na, K, Mg or Ca chlorides (ionic strength 50 mM or 100 mM) were rheologically characterized, and the corresponding results were explained based on different physicochemical analyses. Comparing to the control (unsalted XG dispersion), KCl and CaCl2 tended to produce a more drastic decrease of apparent viscosities of XG dispersions than NaCl and MgCl2. In dynamic-oscillatory assays, the predominance of elastic character over viscous character was more evident for XG dispersions containing KCl and CaCl2, in particular at frequencies > 0.1 Hz. XG dispersions containing KCl or CaCl2 also presented smaller pH and |ζ-potentials| values, as well as greater densities and average hydrodynamic diameters of dispersed XG chains, when compared to respective counterparts containing NaCl or MgCl2. As the decreasing order of the cations radii is K+ > Ca2+ ≈ Na+ > Mg2+, our results allowed deducing that not only the net electric charges of the cations, but also their sizes, should be considered when analyzing the effect of chloride salts on rheological properties of XG aqueous dispersions, according to the desired for this hydrocolloid (weak thickener, strong thickener or pro-gelling agent).


Chloride salts Food biomolecules Ionic radii Ionic strength Rheology Zeta potential 



Second constant of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada relationship


Average hydrodynamic diameter of dispersed particles (nm)


Coefficient of mass diffusivity (m2∙s−1)


Dynamic light scattering


Storage modulus (Pa)


Loss modulus (Pa)


Normalized temporal intensity correlation functions


Peak width (nm)


Consistency index (Pa∙sn)


Boltzmann constant (1.3806488∙10−23 m2∙kg∙s-2 ∙K−1)


First constant of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada relationship (mL∙g−1)


Mean absolute percentage error


Viscometric molar mass (kDa)


Flow behavior index


Refraction index


Viscosity (Pa·s).


Polydispersity index


Coefficient of determination


Sum of the squared errors


Temperature (K)


Speed of droplets (m∙s−1)


Xanthan gum


Constant depending on the number of coherence areas in DLS analysis


Decay rate in DLS analysis (s−1)


Permittivity of free space (C2∙N−1∙m−2)


Dieletric constant of the medium


Zeta potential (mV)


Detector position angle of DLS system (set at 173o)


DLS system wavelength (set at 632.8 nm)


Ionic strength (mM)


Electrophoretic mobility (m2∙(V∙s)−1)


Shear stress (Pa)


Frequency (Hz)

\( \overrightarrow{\mathrm{E}} \)

Electric field (V∙m−1)

\( \dot{\gamma} \)

Shear rate (s−1)


Huggins intrinsic viscosity (mL∙g−1)


Kraemer intrinsic viscosity (mL∙g−1)

\( \overline{\left[\eta \right]} \)

Average intrinsic viscosity (mL∙g−1)

Supplementary material

11483_2018_9524_MOESM1_ESM.docx (351 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 351 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zoila Rosa Nieto Galván
    • 1
  • Lucas de Souza Soares
    • 1
  • Eber Antonio Alves Medeiros
    • 1
  • Nilda de Fátima Ferreira Soares
    • 1
  • Afonso Mota Ramos
    • 1
  • Jane Sélia dos Reis Coimbra
    • 1
  • Eduardo Basílio de Oliveira
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos (DTA)Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV)ViçosaBrazil

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