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Food Biophysics

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 115–126 | Cite as

Specialty Fats from Beef Tallow and Canola Oil: Establishment of Reaction Conditions, Characterization of Products, and Evaluation of Crystal Stability

  • Zong Meng
  • Yuanfa Liu
  • Liang Shan
  • Qingzhe Jin
  • Fengyan Wang
  • Xingguo WangEmail author
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

The effect of reaction time (0–90 min), catalyst concentration (0.2–0.5% CH3ONa powder), and temperature (60–90 °C) of chemical interesterification (CIE) was studied to determine the optimal conditions for maximal change of solid fat content (SFC) in minimal time in a beef tallow (BT)/canola oil (CaO) blend (80:20, w/w, herein after referred to as BT/CaO blend 80:20). The optimal conditions were obtained as: CH3ONa 0.4%, 60 °C, 30 min. BT/CaO blends (60:40, 65:35, 70:30, 75:25, 80:20, and 85:15) were each interesterified on a laboratory scale under afore-determined optimal conditions, and the corresponding 12 samples, before and after CIE, were characterized in terms of the SFC profile and compatibility. SFC profiling showed an increase in SFC (<5%) between 5 and 21.1 °C and a slight drop (<3%) in SFC between 40 and 45 °C for the interesterified blends. Compatibility analysis showed the presence of monotectic systems in original blends, proven through isothermal solid diagrams and isosolid diagrams. The incompatibility among the fats and oils was eliminated after reaction and the solution behavior shifted to a continuous solid solution. The interesterified 85:15, 80:20/75:25, 70:30, 65:35, and 60:40 BT/CaO blends displayed characteristics suited to application, respectively, for bakery shortenings, frying fats, all-purpose bakery shortenings, and bakery and roll-in margarines. The model shortenings produced from interesterified blends had more stable crystal morphology, crystal sizes, and double-chain (2L) stacking β′ polymorphs than blended shortenings under temperature fluctuation storage. Sensory analysis also showed that the former had less graininess and better spreadability than the latter during storage.

Keywords

Interesterification Beef tallow Solid fat content Compatibility Crystal stability Sensory analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program (863 Program) of China (contract no. 2010AA101506) and PhD research fund of Jiangnan University. The authors are grateful to Kerry Specialty Fats (Shanghai) Ltd. for providing materials for the experiments.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zong Meng
    • 1
  • Yuanfa Liu
    • 1
  • Liang Shan
    • 1
  • Qingzhe Jin
    • 1
  • Fengyan Wang
    • 1
  • Xingguo Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and TechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiPeople’s Republic of China

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