Income Levels, Governance and Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
This study examines how income-driven governance affects inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa with data for the period 2000–2012. The empirical evidence is based on the Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) and Tobit regressions. Nine bundled and unbundled concepts of governance are used: political (voice & accountability and political stability/no violence), economic (government effectiveness and regulation quality) and institutional (corruption-control and the rule of law) governances. The main finding is that ‘middle income’-driven governance has a higher effect on inclusive human development than ‘low income’-driven governance. Policy implications are discussed in the light of: (i) the contemporary relevance of findings; (ii) the pivotal role of a higher income level in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda; and (iii) inconsistent strands in the literature and in foreign aid policies.
KeywordsInclusive development Income levels Governance Africa
JEL ClassificationD31 I10 I32 K40 O55
The authors are indebted to the editor and reviewers for constructive comments.
SAA participated in the writing of the manuscript and data analysis. NMO participated in the revision of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The authors have neither financial nor non-financial competing interests.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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