Income Levels, Governance and Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Simplice A. AsonguEmail author
  • Nicholas M. Odhiambo


This study examines how income-driven governance affects inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa with data for the period 2000–2012. The empirical evidence is based on the Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) and Tobit regressions. Nine bundled and unbundled concepts of governance are used: political (voice & accountability and political stability/no violence), economic (government effectiveness and regulation quality) and institutional (corruption-control and the rule of law) governances. The main finding is that ‘middle income’-driven governance has a higher effect on inclusive human development than ‘low income’-driven governance. Policy implications are discussed in the light of: (i) the contemporary relevance of findings; (ii) the pivotal role of a higher income level in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda; and (iii) inconsistent strands in the literature and in foreign aid policies.


Inclusive development Income levels Governance Africa 

JEL Classification

D31 I10 I32 K40 O55 



The authors are indebted to the editor and reviewers for constructive comments.

Authors’ Contribution

SAA participated in the writing of the manuscript and data analysis. NMO participated in the revision of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Competing Interests

The authors have neither financial nor non-financial competing interests.

Ethical Approval

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


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© The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) and Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of South AfricaPretoriaSouth Africa

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