Innovation, Dosage and Responsiveness in the Implementation of the Program “Edúcame Primero Perú” for Reducing Child Labour

  • Esperanza Márquez
  • Daniel Holgado
  • Isidro Maya-JariegoEmail author


"Edúcame Primero Perú" [Educate First, Peru] is a program designed to prevent child labour. It is aimed for 6 to 12 year old children at risk. During the scholastic year 2015–2016, 151 children from three schools in two poor districts of Lima (Peru) participated in the program. In this paper, we examine the impact of various components of program implementation related to psychological well-being and child labour. The qualitative description of the program is based on the participant observation of the 151 children, their families and their teachers. Sixty percent of the participants were boys and 40% girls, all between 8 and 13 years (M = 10.38, DT = 1.22). In a second phase, we collected longitudinal quantitative indicators of innovation, dosage and responsiveness of participants within a group of 36 children who took part throughout a 10 months implementation program in two schools in Villa El Salvador. We describe the process of transfer and adaptation of the program in Peru, from previous experiences in other Latin American countries. Qualitative observation allowed us to document the influence of organizational dynamics and the relationship with families for the proper functioning of the program. The results showed a significant improvement in the responsiveness of the stakeholders in the second phase of the program. Participants positively improved their attitude towards peers and program facilitators, as well as, continued to assist to the workshops. In the discussion, we propose that part of the improvement could be attributed to the reorganization in smaller groups in the program sessions. Small group intervention seems to increase the intensity of implementation. Hence, we explored to what extent small-scale intervention indirectly contributes to improve academic outcomes, psychological adjustment and child labour.


Well-being Implementation Community readiness Child labour Peru 


  1. Amar, J., Palacio, J., Llinás, H., Puerta, L., Sierra, E., Pérez, A. M., & Velásquez, B. (2008). Calidad de Vida y salud mental positiva en menores trabajadores de Toluviejo. [Quality of life and positive mental health in working minors of Toluviejo, Colombia]. Suma Psicológica, 15(2), 385–404.Google Scholar
  2. Arthur, M. W., Hawkins, J. D., Brown, E. C., Briney, J. S., Oesterle, S., & Abbott, R. D. (2010). Implementation of the communities that care prevention system by coalitions in the community youth development study. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(2), 245–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Basu, K. (1999). Child labor: Cause, consequence, and cure, with remarks on international labor standards. Journal of Economic Literature, 37(3), 1083–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beegle, K., Dehejia, R., Gatti, R., & Krutikova, S. (2008). The consequences of child labor: Evidence from longitudinal data in rural Tanzania. Washington, DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beegle, K., Dehejia, R., & Gatti, R. (2009). Why should we care about child labor? The education, labor market, and health consequences of child labor. Journal of Human Resources, 44(4), 871–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berkel, C., Mauricio, A. M., Schoenfelder, E., & Sandler, I. N. (2011). Putting the pieces together: An integrated model of program implementation. Prevention Science, 12(1), 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Biglan, A., & Taylor, T. K. (2000). Why have we been more successful in reducing tobacco use than violent crime? American Journal of Community Psychology, 28(3), 269–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bjärås, G. (1991). The need of leadership for motivation of participants in a community intervention programme. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, 19(3), 190–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, L. D., Goslin, M. C., & Feinberg, M. E. (2012). Relating engagement to outcomes in prevention: The case of a parenting program for couples. American Journal of Community Psychology, 50(1–2), 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carr, T., & Lord, C. (2016). A pilot study promoting participation of families with limited resources in early autism intervention. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 25, 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Charlebois, P., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Normandeau, S., & Boudreau, J. F. (2004). Examining dosage effects on prevention outcomes: Results from a multi-modal longitudinal preventive intervention for young disruptive boys. Journal of School Psychology, 42(3), 201–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Damcha-om, M. A. (2002). Study on child labor in deep-sea fishing and fish-sorting business in Pattani Province. Songklanakarin. Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 8(2), 162–170.Google Scholar
  13. Durlak, J. A. (2016). Programme implementation in social and emotional learning: Basic issues and research findings. Cambridge Journal of Education, 46(3), 333–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3–4), 327–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Hansen, W. B., Walsh, J., & Falco, M. (2005). Quality of implementation: Developing measures crucial to understanding the diffusion of preventive interventions. Health Education Research, 20(3), 308–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Edmonds, E. V. (2008). Defining child labour. A review of the definitions of child labour in policy research. Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
  18. Freudenberg, N., & Zimmerman, M. A. (1995). AIDS Prevention in the Community. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  19. Hidalgo, M. V., Jiménez, L., López-Verdugo, I., Lorence, B., & Sánchez, J. (2016). “Family education and support” program for families at psychosocial risk: The role of implementation process. Psychosocial Intervention, 25(2), 79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Holgado, D., & Maya-Jariego, I. (2010). Potenciación comunitaria y prevención del consumo abusivo de drogas: utilizando una lista de correo electrónico y un blog en un caso de evaluación basada en el empoderamiento. [Empowerment and prevention of drug abuse: use of an email distribution list and a blog in a case of empowerment evaluation] In Fundación Cibervoluntarios (Eds.) Innovación para el empoderamiento de la ciudadanía a través de las TICS (pp. 115–124). Madrid: Scholar
  21. Holgado, D., & Maya-Jariego, I. (2012). Preparación comunitaria y contextos de intervención: el caso de los trabajadores sociales de atención primaria en Andalucía (España). [Community readiness and contexts of intervention: The case of social workers in primary health care centres in Andalusia, Spain]. Anales de Psicología, 28(1), 150–160.Google Scholar
  22. Holgado, D., Maya-Jariego, I., Ramos, I., & Palacio, J. (2014a). El papel de los facilitadores en la implementación de los “Espacios para Crecer”: evaluación formativa del programa con menores trabajadores “Edúcame primero, Colombia”. [The role of facilitators in the implementation of “spaces to grow”: Formative evaluation of the program “Edúcame Primero, Colombia” for working minors]. Universitas Psychologica, 13(4), 1441–1460.Google Scholar
  23. Holgado, D., Maya-Jariego, I., Ramos, I., Palacio, J., Oviedo-Trespalacios, O., Romero-Mendoza, V., & Amar, J. (2014b). Impact of child labor on academic performance: Evidence from the program “Edúcame Primero Colombia”. International Journal of Educational Development, 34, 58–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Holgado, D., Santolaya, F. J., Maya-Jariego, I., Cueto, R. M., & Anaya, R. H. (2015). Preparación comunitaria y organizativa contra el trabajo infantil en tres colegios de barrios periféricos de Lima (Perú). [Community and organisational readiness against child labour in three schools in the outskirts of Lima, Peru]. Apuntes de Psicología, 33(3), 103–116.Google Scholar
  25. Holgado, D., Maya-Jariego, I., Palacio, J., & Oviedo-Trespalacios, Ó. (2016). Two profiles of child labor in the Colombian Caribbean coast: Children relocated to suburban areas compared to the key role of social and labor characteristics of mothers in urban settings. In G. Tonón (Ed.), Indicators of quality of life in Latin America (pp. 251–273). Geneva: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Holtgrave, D. R., & Pinkerton, S. D. (1998). The cost-effectiveness of small group and community-level interventions. In D. R. Holtgrave (Ed.), Handbook of economic evaluation of HIV prevention programs (pp. 119–126). New York: Springer US.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kennedy, E., Wilson, B., Valladares, S., & Bronte-Tinkew, J. (2007). Improving attendance and retention in out-of-school time programs. Research-to-Results Practitioner Insights Child Trends, 17.
  28. Lieten, G. K., & Strehl, T. (2015). Child street life: an inside view of hazards and expectations of street children in Peru. SpringerBriefs in well-being and quality of life research. Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lyon, S., & Rosati, F. C. (2014). Child labor and children’s economic contributions. In A. Ben-Arieh, F. Casas, I. Frønes, & J. E. Korbin (Eds.), Handbook of child well-being (pp. 1509–1521). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maya-Jariego, I. (2010). De la ciencia a la práctica en la intervención comunitaria. La transferencia del conocimiento científico a la actuación profesional. [From science to practice in community intervention. Transfer of scientific knowledge by practitioners]. Apuntes de Psicología, 28(1), 121–141.Google Scholar
  31. Maya-Jariego, I. (2017). “But we want to work”: The movement of child workers in Peru and the actions for reducing child labor. American Journal of Community Psychology, 60(3-4), 430–438.
  32. Maya-Jariego, I. & Holgado, D. (2006). La potenciación comunitaria en la mejora de la implementación de programas: un estudio de caso de prevención en el ámbito educativo. [Empowerment to improve the implementation of programs: a case of prevention in schools]. En G. Tonón (Ed.) Juventud y protagonismo ciudadano (pp. 151–181). Buenos Aires: Espacio Editorial.Google Scholar
  33. Maya-Jariego, I., & Holgado, D. (2014). From Barranquilla to Lima in reducing child labor: Lessons in community action. Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice, 5(2), 1–6.Google Scholar
  34. Maya-Jariego, I. & Palacio, J. E. (2012). Edúcame Primero Colombia. Un espacio de colaboración entre la Universidad de Sevilla y la Universidad del Norte. [Educate Me First, Colombia. An space for collaboration between Universidad de Sevilla and Universidad del Norte] Sevilla: Oficina de Cooperación al Desarrollo de la Universidad de Sevilla.Google Scholar
  35. Maya-Jariego, I., Holgado, D., Santolaya, F. J., Gavilán, A. & Ramos, I. (2010). Comunidades preparadas para la salud. Preparación comunitaria y práctica profesional de los trabajadores sociales de Atención Primaria en Andalucía. [Communities and health. Community readiness and professional practice of social workers in primary care in Andalusia] Madrid: Bubok.Google Scholar
  36. McCree, D. H., Eke, A., & Williams, S. P. (2007). Dyadic, small group and community-level behavioral interventions for STD/HIV prevention. In H. H. Handsfield, J. A. Lipshutz, & E. W. Hook (Eds.), Behavioral interventions for prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases (pp. 105–124). New York: Springer US.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Miller, R. L., & Shinn, M. (2005). Learning from communities: Overcoming difficulties in dissemination of prevention and promotion efforts. American Journal of Community Psychology, 35(3–4), 169–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. O'Donnell, O., Rosati, F. C., & Van Doorslaer, E. (2005). Health effects of child work: Evidence from rural Vietnam. Journal of Population Economics, 18(3), 437–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Oesterle, S., Hawkins, J. D., Kuklinski, M. R., Fagan, A. A., Fleming, C., Rhew, I. C., et al. (2015). Effects of communities that care on males’ and females’ drug use and delinquency 9 years after baseline in a community-randomized trial. American Journal of Community Psychology, 56(3–4), 217–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Oetting, E., Donnermeyer, J., Plested, B., Edwards, R., Kelly, K., & Beauvais, F. (1995). Assessing community readiness for prevention. The International Journal of the Addictions, 30(6), 659–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Orte, C., Ballester, L., Vives, M., & Amer, J. (2016). Quality of implementation in an evidence-based family prevention program: “The family competence program”. Psychosocial Intervention, 25(2), 95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Palacio, J., Amar, J., Madariaga, C., Llinas, H., & Contreras, K. (2007). La calidad de vida en salud en los menores trabajadores de Toluviejo (Sucre). [Quality of life and health in working minors of Toluviejo]. Investigación y Desarrollo, 15(2), 366–393.Google Scholar
  43. Quinby, R. K., Hanson, K., Brooke-Weiss, B., Arthur, M. W., Hawkins, J. D., & Fagan, A. A. (2008). Installing the communities that care prevention system: Implementation progress and fidelity in a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Community Psychology, 36(3), 313–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Small, S. A., Cooney, S. M., & O’connor, C. (2009). Evidence-informed program improvement: Using principles of effectiveness to enhance the quality and impact of family-based prevention programs. Family Relations, 58(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wandersman, A. (2003). Community science: Bridging the gap between science and practice with community-centered models. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31(3–4), 227–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wandersman, A., Duffy, J., Flaspohler, P., Noonan, R., Lubell, K., Stillman, L., et al. (2008). Bridging the gap between prevention research and practice: The interactive systems framework for dissemination and implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3–4), 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature and The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esperanza Márquez
    • 1
  • Daniel Holgado
    • 1
  • Isidro Maya-Jariego
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Universidad de SevillaSevillaSpain

Personalised recommendations