A Synthetic Indicator of Progress Towards the Millennium Development Goals 2, 3 and 4 in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) of Asia

  • José Antonio Rodríguez Martín
  • José María Martín Martín
  • Juan de Dios Jiménez Aguilera
Article
  • 70 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of this article is to measure progress towards the United Nations’ (UN’s) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 2, 3 and 4 in Asia’s least developed countries (LDCs) by studying a group of countries that suffer particularly intensely from poverty. To achieve this goal, we use Pena’s distance method (DP2) to compose a synthetic indicator of the variables of MDG levels for MDGs 2, 3 and 4 in Asia’s LDCs through territorial classification of the DP2 for 2013, the last year for which data are available. The index also permits study of the impact of each variable individually to determine countries’ disparities in the variables associated with three of the MDGs. This analysis is particularly useful for the post-2015 agenda in a scenario such as Asia’s LDCs, which are beset by profound social and economic inequalities.

Keywords

LDCs of Asia Millennium development goals Pena’s distance method Post-2015 development agenda United Nations 

JEL classification

F53 H51 H52 R11 

References

  1. AbouZahr, C., & Boerma, T. (2010). Five years to go and counting: progress towards the millennium development goals. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 88(324), 1–14.Google Scholar
  2. Abuya, B. A., Ciera, J., & Kimani-Murage, E. (2012). Effect of mother’s education on child’s nutritional status in the slums of Nairobi. BMC Pediatrics, 12, 80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albert, C., & Davia, M. (2011). Education is a key determinant of health in Europe: a comparative analysis of 11 countries. Health Promotion International, 26, 163–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brolan, C. (2016). A word of caution: human rights, disability, and implementation of the post-2015 sustainable development goals. Laws, 5(2), 22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Canaviri, J. A. (2016). Measuring the concept of “wellbeing”: a first approach for Bolivia. International Journal of Wellbeing, 6(1), 36–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carrillo, M., & Jorge, J. (2016). DEA-like efficiency ranking of regional health systems in Spain. Social Indicators Research, 1–17. doi:10.1007/s11205-016-1398-y.
  7. Chasco, C. (2014). Objective index of quality of life in Spain. In A. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life research. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  8. Cleland, J., & Harris, K. (1996). The effect of maternal education on child health and survival - Do girls benefit? New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  9. Cuenca, E., & Rodríguez, J. A. (2010). Medición de las disparidades entre indicadores asociados al bienestar social en los Países Menos Adelantados (PMA) de Asia. Revista de Economía Mundial, 25, 83–108.Google Scholar
  10. Cuenca, E., Rodríguez, J. A., & Navarro, M. (2010). The features of development in the Pacific countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group. Social Indicators Research, 99, 469–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Escobar, L. (2006). Indicadores sintéticos de calidad ambiental: Un modelo general para grandes zonas urbanas. EURE, 32(96), 73–98.Google Scholar
  12. Escobar, L. (2008). Indicadores Ambientales Sintéticos: Una aproximación conceptual desde la estadística multivalente. Gestión y Ambiente, 11(1), 121–140.Google Scholar
  13. Fehling, M., Nelson, B. D., & Venkatapuram, S. (2013). Limitations of the millennium development goals: a literature review. Global Public Health, 8(10), 1109–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fukuda-Parr, S., Greenstein, J., & Stewart, D. (2013). How should MDG success and failure be judged: Faster progress or achieving the targets? World Development, 41, 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gore, C. (2015). The post-2015 moment: Towards sustainable development goals and a new global development paradigm. Journal of International Development, 27(6), 717–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Govindasamy, P., & Ramesh, B. M. (1997). Maternal education and the utilization of maternal and child health services in India. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences.Google Scholar
  17. Grépin, K., & Bharadwajb, P. (2015). Maternal education and child mortality in Zimbabwe. Journal of Health Economics, 44, 97–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Holgado, M., Salinas, J. A., & Rodríguez, J. A. (2015). A synthetic indicator to measure the economic and social cohesion of the regions of Spain and Portugal. Revista de Economía Mundial, 39, 223–240.Google Scholar
  19. IMF (2010). Bhutan: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Washington: International Monetary Fund (IMF) Country Report No. 10/180.Google Scholar
  20. Ivanovic, B. (1974). Comment établir une liste des indicateurs de dévelopement. Revue de Statistique Apliquée, 22(2), 37–50.Google Scholar
  21. James, J. (2006). Misguided investments in meeting millennium development goals: a reconsideration using ends-based targets. Third World Quarterly, 27, 453–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. LeVine, R. A., LeVine, S. E., Rowe, M. L., & Schnell-Anzola, B. (2004). Maternal literacy and health behavior: a Nepalese case study. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 863–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lomazzi, M., Theisling, M., Tapia, L., Borisch, B., & Laaser, U. (2013). MDGs – a public health professional’s perspective from 71 countries. Journal of Public Health Policy, 34, e1–e22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lomazzi, M., Borisch, B., & Laaser, U. (2014). The millennium development goals: experiences, achievements and what’s next. Global Health Action, 7, 1–14.Google Scholar
  25. Martinez, O., Lombe, M., Vazquez, A. M., & Coronado, M. (2016). Rethinking the construction of welfare in Mexico: going beyond the economic measures. International Journal of Social Welfare. doi:10.1111/ijsw.12202.Google Scholar
  26. Mishra, S. K. (2007). Construction of maximin and non-elitist composite indices—alternatives to elitist indices obtained by the principal components analysis. MPRA Paper, 3338. Germany: University Library of Munich.Google Scholar
  27. Montero, J. M., Chasco, C., & Larrraz, B. (2010). Building an environmental quality index for a big city: a special interpolation approach combined with a distance indicator. Journal of Geographical Systems, 12(4), 435–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Morrison, A. D. R., & Sinha, N. (2007). Gender equality, poverty and economic growth. Policy research working paper 4349. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  29. Murias, P., Martínez, F., & Miguel, C. (2006). An economic well-being index for the Spanish Provinces: a data envelopment analysis approach. Social Indicators Research, 77(3), 395–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nardo, M., & Saisana, M. (2008). OECD/JRC handbook on constructing composite indicators. Putting theory into practice. Brussels: European Commission-Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen.Google Scholar
  31. OECD. (2002). Society at a glance: OECD social indicator. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD.Google Scholar
  32. Pena, J. B. (1977). Problemas de medición del bienestar y conceptos afines. Madrid: Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE).Google Scholar
  33. Pena, J. B. (2009). The measurement of social welfare: a critical review. Estudios de Economía Aplicada, 27(2), 299–324.Google Scholar
  34. Ram, R. (1982). International inequality in the basic needs indicators. Journal of Development Economics, 10(1), 113–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ravallion, M. (2010). Mashup indices of development. Policy research working paper, 5432. New York: World Bank, Development Research Group.Google Scholar
  36. Ray, S. (2014). An index of maternal and child healthcare status in India: measuring inter- and intra-state variations from capability perspectives. Social Indicators Research, 117(1), 195–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rodríguez, J. A. (2014). Index of child health in Africa. In A. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life research. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Rodríguez, J. A., & Salinas, J. A. (2012). An index of maternal and child health in the least developed countries of Asia. Gaceta Sanitaria, 26(2), 190–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rodríguez, J. A., Salinas, J. A., & Ubiña, A. J. (2011). An index of progress towards the MDG 6 in Sub-Saharan Africa: combat HIV, AIDS and Malaria. Child Indicators Research, 5(1), 99–213.Google Scholar
  40. Rodríguez, J. A., Holgado, M., & Salinas, J. A. (2012). An index of social and economic development in the community’s objective-1 regions of countries in Southern Europe. European Planning Studies, 20(6), 1059–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rodríguez, J. A., Holgado, M., & Salinas, J. A. (2014a). An assessment of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 3 in least developed countries of Asia. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 10(1), 49–62.Google Scholar
  42. Rodríguez, J. A., Moreno, D., & Sánchez, J. (2014b). An index of education and child health in the Horn of Africa. Quality and Quantity, 48(2), 863–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rodríguez, J. A., Holgado, M., & Salinas, J. A. (2015a). An index for quantifying female education and child health in emerging economies. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 100(Suppl 1), s10–s12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rodriguez, J. A., Jiménez, J. D., Salinas, J. A., & Martin, J. M. (2015b). Millennium development goals 4 and 5: progress in the least developed countries of Asia. Social Indicators Research. doi:10.1007/s11205-015-1149-5.Google Scholar
  45. Sánchez, M. A., & Martos, M. J. (2014). A progressive approach to the measurement of regional performance in the European Union. Journal for a Progressive Economy, 3, 62–65.Google Scholar
  46. Sánchez, P., & Prada, A. (2015). From economic growth to development of nations: an application to the European Union. Revista de Economía Mundial, 40, 221–252.Google Scholar
  47. Shen, Y., Hermans, E., Brijs, T., & Wets, G. (2013). Data envelopment analysis for composite indicators: a multiple layer model. Social Indicators Research, 114(2), 739–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Somarriba, N. (2008). Aproximación a la medición de la calidad de vida en la Unión Europea. Doctoral thesis. Valladolid: Universidad de Valladolid. Retrieved from www.eumed.net/tesis-doctorales/2010/mnsa/index.htm.
  49. Somarriba, N., & Pena, B. (2008). Aproximación a un indicador regional y nacional de los Objetivos de Lisboa a partir de la distancia P2. Estudios Económicos de Desarrollo Internacional, 8(2), 83–94.Google Scholar
  50. Somarriba, N., & Pena, B. (2009). Synthetic indicators of quality of life in Europe. Social Indicators Research, 96, 115–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Somarriba, N., & Zarzosa, P. (2016). Quality of life in Latin America: A proposal for a synthetic indicator. In G. Tonon (Ed.), Indicators of quality of life in Latin America. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG.Google Scholar
  52. Somarriba, N., Zarzosa, P., & Pena, B. (2015). The economic crisis and its effects on the quality of life in the European Union. Social Indicators Research, 120(2), 323–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. UNCTAD. (2014). Growth with structural transformation: A post-2015 development agenda. New York: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. United Nations Publication.Google Scholar
  54. UNCTAD. (2015). The least developed countries. Report 2015. New York: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. United Nations Publication.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. UNICEF. (2007). Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries. Innocenti Report Card 7. Florence: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  56. United Nation. (2010). Beyond the midpoint: Achieving the millennium development goals. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. United Nation Development Programme. (2005). Human development report. UNDP. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. United Nation Development Programme. (2012). Human development report. UNDP. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. United Nation Development Programme. (2013). The millennium development goals progress report for the Cambodia. New York: UNDP. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. United Nation Development Programme. (2014). The millennium development goals progress report for the lao PDR. New York: UNDP. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. United Nations. (2001). Programme of action for the least developed countries. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. United Nations. (2011). Keeping the promise: United to achieve the millennium development goals. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  63. United Nations. (2015). Millennium development goals and beyond. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. United Nations Development Programme. (2011). Yemen report 2010. Millennium development goals. UNDP. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. United Nations Development Programme. (2012). Afghanistan report 2012. Millennium development goals program (UNDP). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  66. United Nations General Assembly. (2015). Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  67. United Nations Secretary-General. (2010). Global strategy for women’s and children’s health. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  68. United Nations-OHRLLS. (2014). State of the least developed countries report 2014 front cover. New York: The United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries (OHRLLS).Google Scholar
  69. Van Norren, D. E. (2012). The wheel of development: the millennium development goals as a communication and development tool. Third World Quarterly, 33, 825–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zarzosa, P. (1994). El criterio de discriminación en la selección de indicadores de bienestar. Análisis del coeficiente de discriminación de Ivanovic. Estudios de Economía Aplicada, 2, 169–185.Google Scholar
  71. Zarzosa, P. (1996). Aproximación a la medición del bienestar social. Idoneidad del indicador sintético Distancia P2. Cuadernos de Economia, 68(24), 139–163.Google Scholar
  72. Zarzosa, P. (1997). Aproximación a la medición del bienestar social. Doctoral thesis. Valladolid: Departamento de Economía Aplicada. Universidad de Valladolid.Google Scholar
  73. Zarzosa, P. (2005). La calidad de vida en los municipios de la provincia de Valladolid. Valladolid: Diputación Provincial.Google Scholar
  74. Zarzosa, P. (2009). Estimación de la pobreza en las comunidades autónomas españolas, mediante la distancia DP2 de Pena. Estudios de Economía Aplicada, 27(2), 397–416.Google Scholar
  75. Zarzosa, P. (2012). The social welfare in Spain before the crisis: territorial and chronological analysis. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 1(4), 165–171.Google Scholar
  76. Zarzosa, P., & Somarriba, N. (2013). An assessment of social welfare in Spain: territorial analysis using a synthetic welfare indicator. Social Indicators Research, 111, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Antonio Rodríguez Martín
    • 1
    • 3
  • José María Martín Martín
    • 2
  • Juan de Dios Jiménez Aguilera
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied EconomicsUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Faculty of Law, Social Sciences and Humanities, Business AreaInternational University of La RiojaLa RiojaSpain
  3. 3.Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y EmpresarialesGranadaSpain

Personalised recommendations