Applied Research in Quality of Life

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 981–995 | Cite as

The Relationship between Hope and Life Satisfaction among Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: the Enhancing Effect of Self Efficacy

  • Ricky T. MunozEmail author
  • Chan M. Hellman
  • Kara L. Brunk


Among a sample of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) residing in an emergency shelter, this study (N = 115) examined the relationship between hope, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction. Specifically, the study sought to explore if hope independently accounted for unique variance in life satisfaction over self-efficacy. First, a principal components analysis (PCA) was performed to evaluate if the 3 theorized components were present in the sample. Results of the PCA indicated hope, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction indeed loaded as distinct components. Second, to further evaluate the distinctiveness of hope and self-efficacy, both were modeled sequentially to evaluate each’s relationship with life satisfaction. Results indicated that hope was associated with robust variance in life satisfaction over self-efficacy. The overall results are consistent with hope being a unique variable important to psychological wellbeing among a sample of IPV survivors. The results may suggest a need for additional research into hope based interventions with IPV survivors that target increases in hope as a therapeutic outcome.


Hope Self efficacy Life satisfaction Intimate partner violence 


  1. Ai, A. L., Cascio, T., Santangelo, L. K., & Evans-Campbell, T. (2005). Hope, meaning, and growth following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20(5), 523–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arian, G. (2013). Domestic violence survivors’ experiences of hope: A phenomenological study. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (Accession Order No. AAT 3602480).Google Scholar
  3. Arrindell, W. A., Heesink, J., & Feij, J. A. (1999). The satisfaction with life scale (SWLS): appraisal with 1700 health young adults in the Netherlands. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 815–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avey, J. B., Wernsing, T. S., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). A longitudinal analysis of positive psychology constructs and emotions on stress, anxiety, and well-being. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 18, 216–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailey, T. C., & Snyder, C. R. (2007). Satisfaction with life and hope: a look at age and marital status. The Psychological Record, 57, 233–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, T. C., Eng, W., Frisch, M. B., & Snyder, C. R. (2007). Hope and optimism as related to life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(3), 168–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychology Review, 84(2), 191–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. The American Psychologist, 44(9), 1175–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  11. Benight, C. C., & Bandura, A. (2004). Social cognitive theory of posttraumatic recovery: the role of perceived self-efficacy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 1129–1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernardo, A. B. I. (2010). Extending hope theory: internal and external locus of trait hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 944–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Black, M. C. (2011). Intimate partner violence and adverse health consequences: implications for clinicians. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 428–439.Google Scholar
  14. Bronk, K. C., Hill, P. L., Lapsley, D. K., Talib, T. L., & Finch, H. (2009). Purpose, hope, and life satisfaction in three age groups. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 500–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cakar, F. S. (2012). The relationship between the self-efficacy and life satisfaction of young adults. International Education Studies, 5(6), 123–130.Google Scholar
  16. Campbell, J.C., Kub, J. & Rose, L. (1996). Depression in battered women. JAMA, 51, 106.Google Scholar
  17. Chang, E. C., & DeSimone, S. L. (2001). The influence of hope on appraisals, coping, and dysphoria: a test of hope theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20, 117–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cheavens, J., Feldman, D. B., Gum, A., Michael, S. T., & Snyder, C. R. (2006). Hope therapy in a community sample: a pilot investigation. Social Indicators Research, 76, 61–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen, G., Gully, S. M., & Eden, D. (2001). Validation of a new general self-efficacy scale. Organizational Research Methods, 4(1), 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cicerone, K. D., & Azulay, J. (2007). Perceived self-efficacy and life satisfaction after traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 22(5), 257–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  22. Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  23. Cooley, W. W., & Lohnes, P. R. (1971). Multivariate data analysis. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  24. Curry, L. A., Snyder, C. R., Cook, D. L., Ruby, B. C., & Rehm, M. (1997). The role of hope in academic and sport achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1257–1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffen, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Edwards, T. M., & Jovanovski, A. (2016). Hope as a therapeutic target in counselling – in general and in relation to Christian clients. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 38, 77–88. doi: 10.1007/s10447-016-9257-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A. G. (2009). Statistical power analysis using G*power 3.1: tests for correlation and regression analysis. Behavior Research Methods, 41(4), 1149–1160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Feldman, D. B., & Snyder, C. R. (2005). Hope and the meaningful life: theoretical and empirical associations between goal–directed thinking and life meaning. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(3), 401–421. doi: 10.1521/jscp.24.3.401.65616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Frank, J. D. (1968). The role of hope in psychotherapy. International Journal of Psychiatry, 5, 383–395.Google Scholar
  30. Frank, J. D. (1971). Therapeutic factors in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 25, 350–361.Google Scholar
  31. Freire, P. (1996). The pedagogy of hope: reliving pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  32. Guadagnoli, E., & Velicer, W. (1988). Relation of sample size to the stability of component patterns. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 265–275.Google Scholar
  33. Guney, S., Kalafat, T., & Boysan, M. (2010). Dimensions of mental health: life satisfaction, anxiety, and depression: a preventive mental health study in Ankara University student population. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 1210–1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hampton, N. Z., & Marshall, A. (2000). Culture, gender, self-efficacy and life satisfaction: a comparison between Americans and Chinese with spinal cord injuries. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 66(3), 21–27. doi: 10.1177/00343552040480010401.
  35. Hearth, K. (1992). An abbreviated instrument to measure hope: development and psychometric evaluation. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17(10), 1251–1259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hellman, C., Pittman, M., & Munoz, R. (2012). The first twenty years of the wills and the ways: an examination of score reliability distribution on Snyder’s dispositional hope scale. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(3), 723–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Herche, J., & Engellend, B. (1996). Reversed-polarity items and scale unidimensionality. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 24(4), 366–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Holden, K. B., McKenzie, R., Pruitt, V., Aaron, K., & Hall, S. (2012). Depressive symptoms, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence among pregnant women of diverse ethnicities. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 23(1), 226–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hutcheson, G., & Sofroniou, N. (1999). The multivariate social scientist. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson, D., & Zlotnick, C. (2009). HOPE for battered women with PTSD in domestic violence shelters. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40, 234–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Johnson, W. L., Giordono, P. C., Longmore, M. A., & Manning, W. D. (2014). Intimate partner violence and depressive symptoms during adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 5(1), 39–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kwon, P. (2000). Hope and dysphoria: the moderating role of defense mechanisms. Journal of Personality, 68(2), 199–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lomax, R. G., & Hahs-Vaughn, D. L. (2012). Statistical concepts: a second course (4th ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Lopez, S. J., Floyd, R. K., Ulven, J. C., & Snyder, C. R. (2000). Hope therapy: helping clients build a house of hope. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Handbook of hope theory, measures, and application (pp. 123–150). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  45. Ludlow, L., & Kline, K. (2014). Suppressor variables: the difference between “is” and “acting as”. Journal of Statistics Education, 22(2), 1–28.Google Scholar
  46. Maddux, J. E. (1999). Expectancies and the social-cognitive perspective: basic principles, processes, and variables. In I. Kirsch (Ed.), How expectancies shape behavior (pp. 17–40). Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Magaletta, P. R., & Oliver, J. M. (1999). The hope construct, will and ways: their relative relations with self-efficacy, optimism, and general well-being. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 539–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McFatter, R. M. (1979). The use of structural equation models in interpreting regression equations including suppressor and enhancer variables. Applied Psychological Measurement, 3, 123–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  50. O’Sullivan, G. (2011). The relationship between hope, eustress, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction among undergraduates. Social Indicators Research, 101, 155–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ozer, E. M., & Bandura, A. (1990). Mechanisms governing empowerment effects: a self-efficacy analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(3), 472–486. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.58.3.472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pandey, S., & Elliot, W. (2010). Suppressor variables in social work research: ways to identify in multiple regression models. Journal of the Society of Social Work Research, 1(1), 28–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the satisfaction with life scale. Psychological Assessment, 5(2), 164–172. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.5.2.164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pedhazur, E. J. (1997). Multiple regression in behavioral research (3rd ed.). Forth Worth: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  55. Pico-Alfonso, M. A., Garcia-Linares, M. I., Celda-Navarro, N., Blasco-Ros, C., Echeburúa, E., & Martinez, M. (2006). The impact of physical, psychological, and sexual intimate male partner violence on women’s mental health: depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder, state anxiety, and suicide. Journal of Women's Health, 15(5), 599–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Saleebey, D. (2000). Power in the people: strength and hope. Advances in Social Work, 1(2), 127–136.Google Scholar
  57. Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2006). Competence and control beliefs: distinguishing the means and ends. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of education psychology (2nd ed., pp. 349–367). Mahweh: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  58. Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: a user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35–37). Windsor: NFER-NELSON.Google Scholar
  59. Seligman, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: an introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shapiro, D. H., Potkin, S., Jin, Y., Brown, B., & Carreon, D. (1993). Measuring the psychological construct of control: discriminant, divergent, and incremental validity of the Shapiro control inventory and Rotter’s and Wallston’s locus of control scales. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 40, 35–46.Google Scholar
  61. Sherer, M., & Adams, C. H. (1983). Construct validation of the self-efficacy scale. Psychological Reports, 53, 899–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sherer, M., Maddux, J. E., Mercandante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R. W. (1982). The self-efficacy scale: construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 51, 663–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Snyder, C. R. (1994). The psychology of hope. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  64. Snyder, C. R. (2000). Hope theory: updating a common process for psychological change. In C. R. Snyder & R. E. Ingram (Eds.), Handbook of psychological change psychotherapy & practices for the twenty-first century (pp. 128–153). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  65. Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 24(4), 249–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570–585. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.60.4.570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stahly, G. B. (2008). Battered women why don’t they just leave? In J. C. Chrisler, C. Golden, & P. D. Rowe (Eds.), Lectures on the psychology of women (4th ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  68. Thorton, L. M., Cheavens, J. S., Heitzmann, C. A., Dorfman, C. S., Wu, S. M., & Andersen, B. L. (2014). Test of mindfulness and hope components in a psychological intervention for women with cancer recurrence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82, 1087–1100. doi: 10.1037/a0036959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tipton, R. M., & Worthington, E. L. (1984). The measurement of generalized self-efficacy: a study of construct validity. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 545–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhou, M., & Chun Seng Kam, C. (2016). Hope and general self-efficacy: two measures of the same construct. The Journal of Psychology Interdisciplinary and Applied, 150,(5) 1–17.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ricky T. Munoz
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Chan M. Hellman
    • 2
  • Kara L. Brunk
    • 1
  1. 1.Anne and Henry Zarrow School of Social WorkUniversity of Oklahoma-TulsaTulsaUSA
  2. 2.Center of Applied Research for Non-ProfitsUniversity of Oklahoma-TulsaTulsaUSA

Personalised recommendations