Development and Validation of the Social Emotional Health Survey–Higher Education Version
- 810 Downloads
We report on the development of the Social Emotional Health Survey-Higher Education (SEHS-HE), a multidimensional measure of covitality (the combinatorial effects of multiple positive psychological constructs). Scale development was carried out over 18 months involving five phases: conceptual grounding and item pool generation; cognitive interviews and item refinement; pilot survey and item reduction; structural validation survey and analyses; and, validity and stability analyses. Starting with a pool of 72 items, item selection and reduction was carried out using a sample of 771 college students. A second sample of 1,413 students (63.5 % female, mean age 20.0 years) completed the refined 48-item measure. Confirmatory factor analyses found acceptable fit for the SEHS-HE higher-order covitality latent structure. A final set of 36 items consisted of four latent traits (each comprised of three measured subscales): belief-in-self (subscales: self-efficacy, persistence, self-awareness), belief-in-others (subscales: family support, institutional support, peer support), emotional competence (subscales: cognitive reappraisal, empathy, self-regulation), and engaged living (subscales: gratitude, zest, optimism). Complete invariance was found for males and females with small effect size differences on latent mean scores. Evidence supported the SEHS-HE total score’s concurrent and predictive validity for students’ subjective well-being (r = .72, r = .65, respectively) and psychological distress (r = −.56, r = −.45, respectively). The 4-month stability coefficient for the SEHS-HE total score was .82, indicating it measures trait-like psychological constructs. The discussion focuses on the uses of the SEHS-HE in support of mental health programs, and refinement of the conceptual understanding of the covitality construct.
KeywordsCovitality College students Social emotional health Well-being Social Emotional Health Survey-Higher Education
- American College Health Association. (2014). American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II: Reference group executive summary. Hanover: Author. Available from: www.acha-ncha.org/docs/ACHA-NCHA-II_ReferenceGroup_ExecutiveSummary_Spring2014.pdf.
- Antony, M. M., Beiling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Ens, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the depression anxiety stress scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10, 176–181. doi: 10.1037/1040-3522.214.171.124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Encino: Multivariate Software.Google Scholar
- Center for Collegiate Mental Health. (2015). 2014 annual report. Publication No. STA 15–30. Available from: http://ccmh.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/3058/2015/02/2014-CCMH-Annual-Report.pdf.
- Crisp, R. J., & Turner, R. N. (2014). Essential social psychology (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Davis, M. H. (1983). The effects of dispositional empathy on emotional reactions and helping: a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality, 51(2), 167–184. http://search.proquest.com/docview/616861092?accountid=14522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2014). The importance of autonomy for development and well-being. In B. W. Sokol, F. M. E. Grouzet, & U. Miller (Eds.), Self-regulation and autonomy: Social and developmental dimensions of human conduct (pp. 19–46). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Dowdy, E., Furlong, M. J., Raines, T. C., Price, M., Murdock, J., & Bovery, B. (2014). Enhancing school-based mental health services with a preventive and promotive approach to universal screening for complete mental health. Journal of Educational and Psychology Consultation, 25, 1–20. doi: 10.1080/10474412.2014.929951.Google Scholar
- Durand-Bush, K., McNeil, K., Harding, M., & Dobransky, J. (2015). Investigating stress, psychological well-being, mental health functioning, and self-regulation capacity among university undergraduate students: Is this population optimally functioning? Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy / Revue canadienne de counseling et de psychothÃ©rapie, 49(3). Available at: <http://cjc-rcc.ucalgary.ca/cjc/index.php/rcc/article/view/2807>. Date accessed 01 Jan 2016.
- Elliott, S. N., Gresham, F., & Witt, J. C. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of behavior therapy in education. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
- Ferguson, R. F., Phillips, S. F., Rowley, J. F. S., & Friedlander, J. W. (2015). The influence of teaching: beyond standardized test scores: Engagement, mindsets, and agency. Boston: The Achievement Gap Initiative at Harvard University. Available from: www.agi.harvard.edu/projects/TeachingandAgency.pdf.
- Fullchange, A., & Furlong, M. J. (2016). An exploration of effects of bullying victimization from a complete mental health perspective. Sage Open, (January-March), 1–12. doi: 10.1177/2158244015623593.
- Keyes, C. L. M. (2009). Brief description of the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF). Available: www.sociology.emory.edu/ckeyes/ [Online, 29 December 2015].
- Keyes, C. L. M., Eisenberg, D., Geraldine, S., Perry, G. S., Dube, S. R., Kroenke, K., & Dhingra, S. S. (2012). The relationship of level of positive mental health with current mental disorders in predicting suicidal behavior and academic impairment in college students. Journal of American College Health, 60, 126–133. doi: 10.1080/07448481.2011.608393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kia-Keating, M., You, S., Moore, S., Liu, S., & Furlong, M. J. (2016). Structural validity of the depression, anxiety, and stress scale-21 for U.S. college students. Manuscript under review.Google Scholar
- Kratsas, G. (n.d.). 30 great schools promoting healthy living on campus. Great Values Colleges website. Available form: www.greatvaluecolleges.net/30-great-schools-promoting-healthy-living-on-campus/.
- Lee, S., You, S., & Furlong, M. J. (2015). Validation of the social emotional health survey for Korean school students. Child Indicators Research.. doi: 10.1007/s12187-014-9294-y.
- Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales. Sydney: Psychology Foundation.Google Scholar
- Meehl, P. E. (1990). Why summaries of research on psychological theories are often uninterpretable. Psychological Reports, 66 (Monograph Supplement 1-Vol. 66), 195–244.Google Scholar
- Renshaw, T. R. (2016). Technical adequacy of the Positive Experiences at School Scale with Adolescents. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. First published online January 2016. doi: 10.1177/0734282915627920.
- Renshaw, T. L., & Bolognino, S. J. (2015). The College Student subjective wellbeing questionnaire: A brief, multidimensional measure of undergraduate’s covitality. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1–22. First online: 17 December 2014. doi: 10.1007/s10902-014-9606-4.
- Renshaw, T. L., Furlong, M. J., Dowdy, E., Rebelez, J., Smith, D. C., O’Malley, I., & Strom, I. F. (2014). Covitality: A synergistic conception of adolescents’ mental health. In M. J. Furlong, R. Gilman, & E. S. Huebner (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (2nd ed., pp. 12–32). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
- Steiger, J. H., & Lind, A. (1980). Statistically based tests for the number of common factors. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychometric Society, Iowa City.Google Scholar
- Wang, C., Yang, C., Jiang, X., & Furlong, M. J. (2016). Validation of social emotional health survey-primary for Chinese students. Manuscript under review.Google Scholar