Applied Research in Quality of Life

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 1–16 | Cite as

Predictors of Quality of Life among Ethnically Diverse Breast Cancer Survivors

  • Ellen G. Levine
  • Grace J. Yoo
  • Caryn Aviv


Few studies have examined predictors of quality of life (QOL) of breast cancer survivors over time. Breast cancer survivors (n = 116) were asked to complete measures of QOL, mood, spirituality, and social support every 6 months from 2 to 4 years post treatment. Overall QOL at 4 years was predicted by previous physical and functional well-being, the breast cancer-specific items, and vigor and current levels of social support (Adj R 2 = .72, F = 30.53, p < .001). Physical QOL was predicted by previous levels of physical and functional well-being and current levels of functional and social/family well-being (Adj R 2 = .84, F = 44.30, p < .001). Functional well-being was predicted by prior levels of physical, functional, and social/family well-being and current levels of physical well-being and vigor (Adj R 2 = .72, F = 3–.53, p < .001). Emotional well-being was predicted by previous levels of emotional well-being and current physical well-being, the breast cancer-specific items, and anxiety (Adj R 2 = .60, F = 26.30, p < .001). Social/family well-being was predicted by previous levels of social/family well-being, social support, and confusion (Adj R 2 = .71, F = 34.18, p < <000). The breast cancer-specific items were predicted by age, previous levels of the breast cancer-specific items, confusion, and current levels of emotional and functional well-being and spirituality (Adj R 2 = .58, F = 17.57, p < .001). Overall and specific dimensions of QOL at 4 years were predicted by different combinations of QOL, mood, and spirituality. Interventions should be tailored to which dimensions of QOL are affected and other types of QOL as well as social support, mood, and spirituality as coping mechanisms that influence the specific dimension of QOL affected.


Breast cancer Quality of life Racial/ethnic/cultural differences Social support Spirituality 



This research was supported by a Research Infrastructure in Minority Institutions (RIMI) grant 5 P20 MD000544-02 from the National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health, to San Francisco State University. We would also like to recognize our interviewers and research assistants: Yaffa Alter, Julie Armin, Jacqueline Bishop, Gloria Boehm, Tina Chan, Qiu Chen, Heather Law, Erin McCoy, Ana Freire, Mariaelena Gonzalez, Ann Gilliard, Regina Lagman, Mabel Lam, Laureen Hom, Jonathon Lee, Beverly Lynn, Sachiko Reed, Sann Situ, Chris Van Onselen, Shelley Volz, and Ivy Wong. The collection of cancer incidence data used in this study was supported by the California Department of Public Health as part of the statewide cancer reporting program mandated by California Health and Safety Code Section 103885; the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program under contract N01-PC-35136 awarded to the Cancer Prevention Institute of California, contract N01-PC-35139 awarded to the University of Southern California, and contract N02-PC-15105 awarded to the Public Health Institute; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Program of Cancer Registries, under agreement #U55/CCR921930-02 awarded to the Public Health Institute. The ideas and opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s), and endorsement by the State of California, Department of Public Health, the National Cancer Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or their contractors and subcontractors is not intended nor should be inferred.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All recruitment procedures followed HIPPA regulations. IRB approval was obtained from all participating investigators’ research institutions and the Cancer Prevention Institute of California (CPIC).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Walden UniversityCastro ValleyUSA
  2. 2.San Francisco State UniversitySan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.University of Colorado-BoulderBoulderUSA

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