Applied Research in Quality of Life

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 253–270 | Cite as

Students’ Responses to Improve Environmental Sustainability Through Recycling: Quantitatively Improving Qualitative Model

  • Muhammad Shakil Ahmad
  • Aqeel Ahmed Bazmi
  • Abdul Waheed Bhutto
  • Kanwal Shahzadi
  • Nadia Bukhari


This study attempts to contemplate the respondents’ behaviors regarding recycling, with the purpose of identifying the factors that influence their behaviors. The study is based on a survey that was conducted with 230 nationwide university students and guidelines borrowed from the Theory of Planned Behavior and The Theory of Reasoned action. The data collected was evaluated by applying the Structure Equation Modelling technique. The study concluded that peoples’ attitudes are largely subject to the moral values and general norms of their own society. Additionally, an individual’s response towards recycling is greatly determined by the extent of his/her awareness towards the environment, as well as his/her personal knowledge. Another conclusion was that an individual’s past experience towards recycling contributes to his/her attitude (willingness or apprehension about recycling) in the future. Furthermore, although the convenience and cost of recycling were found to be reasonably significant determinants about one’s recycling behavior, it was determined that time commitment is the most decisive factor that influences an individual’s willingness to or not to recycle. The study’s findings have not only established the authority of Theory of Planned Behaviour and Theory of Reasoned Action, but it has also presented propositions and recommendations for future research. The inferences were based on the study’s respondents, hence, so their validity can be applied to various scenarios involving local educational institutions or government structures. The goal of the study is to encourage people to engage in positive recycling behavior.


Recycling behavior Subjective norms Moral norms Attitude Extent of concern Environmental sustainability 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Shakil Ahmad
    • 1
  • Aqeel Ahmed Bazmi
    • 2
  • Abdul Waheed Bhutto
    • 3
  • Kanwal Shahzadi
    • 4
  • Nadia Bukhari
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Management SciencesCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyAttockPakistan
  2. 2.Process & Energy Systems Engineering Center-PRESTIGE, Department of Chemical EngineeringCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringDawood University of Engineering & TechnologyKarachiPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Management SciencesCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyAttockPakistan

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