Applied Research in Quality of Life

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 591–604 | Cite as

Free Time Management Makes Better Retirement: A Case Study of Retirees’ Quality of Life in Taiwan



The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between free time management and quality of life for retirees. Data were collected by convenience sampling from the four main districts of Taiwan. Overall, 454 usable questionnaires were received. The data showed a positive relationship between free time management and quality of life (r = 0.72, p < .05). However, contrary to this, the relationships between time allocation and quality of life were not significant or even negative. These results indicate that retirees who effectively manage their free time can enjoy a better quality of life. Suggestions are made based on the observed relationship and some directions for future research are discussed.


Free time management Quality of life Retirees 


  1. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Averill, J. R. (1973). Personal control of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, 50, 179–211.Google Scholar
  3. Balduf, M. (2009). Underachievement among college students. Journal of advanced academics., 20(2), 274–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bazerman, M. H. (1982). Impact of personal control on performance: is added control always beneficial? Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 472–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bognar, G. (2005). The concept of quality of life. Social Theory and Practice, 31(4), 561–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowling, A., & Iliffe, S. (2011). Psychological approach to successful ageing predicts future quality of life in older adults. Health & Quality of Life Outcomes, 9(1), 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Britton, B. K., & Tesser, A. (1989). Time management questionnaire. In J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 439–440). NY: Plenum.Google Scholar
  8. Britton, B. K., & Tesser, A. (1991). Effects of time-management practices on college grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(3), 405–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caldwell, L. L., Baldwin, C. K., Walls, T., & Smith, E. (2004). Preliminary effects of a leisure education program to promote healthy use of free time among middle school adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 36(3), 310–335.Google Scholar
  10. Charlesworth, J. C. (1964). A comprehensive plan for the wise use of leisure. In J. C. Charlesworth (Ed.), Leisure in America: Blessing or curse (pp. 30–46). PA: American Academy of Political Social Science.Google Scholar
  11. Covey, S. R., Merrill, A. R., & Merrill, R. R. (2004). First things first: to live, to love, to learn, to leave a legacy. NY: Covey Leadership Center, Inc.Google Scholar
  12. Driver, B. L., Brown, P. J., & Peterson, G. L. (1991). Leisure benefits. PA: Venture.Google Scholar
  13. Fayers, P. M., & Machin, D. (2000). Quality of life: assessment, analysis and interpretation. England: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. George, D., Dixon, S., Stansal, E., Gelb, S. L., & Pheri, T. (2008). Time diary and questionnaire assessment of factors associated with academic and personal success among university undergraduates. Journal of American College Health, 56(6), 706–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gholam, H. G., Azadeh, T., Maryam, B., Mahdieh, M., & Mahdi, S. (2010). Quality of life in college students with and without social phobia. Social Indicators Research, 97, 247–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Godbey, G. (1999). Leisure and Leisure Services in the 21st Century. State College: Venture Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  17. Greenberger, D. B., Strasser, S., Cummings, L. L., & Dunham, R. B. (1989). The impact of personal control on performance and satisfaction. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, 43, 29–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gussen, J. (1967). The psychodynamics of leisure. In P. A. Martin (Ed.), Leisure and mental health: a psychiatric viewpoint (pp. 51–69). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  19. Huffstutter S, & Smith S. (1989). Managing time and stress. Office of Educational Research and Improvement (Ed.), Washington, DC (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 309 518).Google Scholar
  20. Hultsman, W. (1995). Recognizing patterns of leisure constraints: an extension of the exploration of dimensionality. Journal of Leisure Research, 27, 228–244.Google Scholar
  21. International Living (2013). 2010 Quality of life index: 194 Countries ranked and rated.
  22. Ito, H., & Tabata, K. (2010). The spillover effects of population aging, international capital flows, and welfare. Journal of Population Economics, 23(2), 665–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Iwasaki, Y. (2006). Leisure and quality of life in an international and multicultural context: what are major pathways linking leisure to quality of life? Social Indicators Research, 82, 233–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Iwasaki, Y., Coyle, C. P., & Shank, J. W. (2010). Leisure as a context for active living, recovery, health and life quality for persons with mental illness in a global context. Health Promotion International, 25(4), 483–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kay, T., & Jackson, G. (1991). Leisure despite constraint: the impact of leisure constraints on leisure participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 23, 301–313.Google Scholar
  26. Lakein, A. (1973). How to get control of your time and your life. NY: New American Library.Google Scholar
  27. Lee, Y., & McCormick, B. (2004). Subjective well-being of people with spinal cord Injury: does leisure contribute? Journal of Rehabilitation, 70(3), 5–12.Google Scholar
  28. Lee, P. L., Lan, W., & Yen, T. W. (2011). aging successfully: a four-factor model. Educational Gerontology, 37(3), 210–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Longman, P. (2010). Global aging. Foreign Policy, 182, 52–58.Google Scholar
  30. Macan, T. H. (1994). Time management: test of a process model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 381–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Macan, T. M., Shahani, C., Dipboye, R. L., & Phillips, A. P. (1990). College students’ time management: correlations with academic performance and stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 760–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mannell, R. C., & Kleiber, D. A. (1997). A Social Psychology of Leisure. PA: Venture Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  33. Marken, D. M. (2005). One step ahead: preparing the senior center for 2030. Activities. Adaptation and Aging, 29(4), 69–84.Google Scholar
  34. Mokhtari, K., Reichard, C. A., & Gardner, A. (2009). The impact of Internet and television use on the reading habits and practices of college students. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 52(7), 609–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. National Statistics, ROC., Taiwan (2013). National Accounts.
  36. Nimrod, G. (2007). Retirees’ leisure: activities, benefits, and their contribution to life satisfaction. Leisure Studies, 26(1), 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nimrod, G., & Adoni, H. (2006). Leisure-styles and life satisfaction among recent retirees in Israel. Ageing & Society, 26(4), 607–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pawelko, K. A., & Magafas, A. H. (1997). Leisure well-being among adolescent groups: time, choices and self-determination. Parks and Recreation, 32(7), 26–38.Google Scholar
  39. Pereira, R. B. (2008). Leisure and ageing: the leisure experiences of older Italians in an Australian community. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 55(3), 218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pinquart, M., & Schindler, I. (2009). Change of leisure satisfaction in the transition to retirement: a latent-class analysis. Leisure Sciences, 31(4), 311–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ricklefs, R. E., & Scheuerlein, A. (2003). Life span in the light of avian life histories. Population and Development Review, 29(1), 71–98.Google Scholar
  42. Riddick, C. C., & Danial, S. N. (1994). An examination of the life satisfaction and importance of leisure in the lives of older female retirees: a comparison of blacks and whites. Journal of Leisure Research, 26(1), 75–87.Google Scholar
  43. Roberson, D. N., Jr. (2007). Learning wellness: a water exercise class in Zagreb, Croatia. Educational Gerontology, 33, 631–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Robinson, J. P., & Godbey, G. (1999). Time for life: The surprising ways Americans use their time. PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Sasidharan, V., Payne, L., Orsega-Smith, E., & Godbey, G. (2006). Older adults’ physical activity participation and perceptions of wellbeing: examining the role of social support for leisure. Managing Leisure, 11(3), 164–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schwartz, G. M., & Campagna, J. (2008). New meaning for the emotional state of the elderly from a leisure standpoint. Leisure Studies, 27(2), 207–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shek, D. T. L. (2010). Introduction: quality of life of Chinese people in a changing world. Social Indicators Research, 95, 357–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Spiers, A., & Walker, G. J. (2009). The effects of ethnicity and leisure satisfaction on happiness, peacefulness and quality of life. Leisure Sciences, 31(1), 84–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Szabo, S. (1996). Chap 36: The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) assessment instrument. In B. Spiker (Ed.), Quality of life and pharmaco- economics in clinical trials (pp. 355–362). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.Google Scholar
  50. The WHOQOL Group. (1994). Development of the WHOQOL: rationale and current status. International Journal of Mental Health, 23(3), 24–56.Google Scholar
  51. The WHOQOL Group. (1995). The World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL): position paper from the World Health Organization. Social Science Medicine, 41(10), 1403–1409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. The WHOQOL Group. (1998a). The World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL): development and general psychometric properties. Social Science Medicine, 46(12), 1569–1585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. The WHOQOL Group. (1998b). Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological Medicine, 28, 551–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Trenberth, L. (2005). The role, nature and purpose of leisure and its contribution to individual development and well-being. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 33(1), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wang, W. C., & Kao, C. H. (2006). An exploration of the relationships between free time management and the quality of life of wage-earners in Taipei. World Leisure Journal, 48(1), 24–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wang, W. C., Kao, C. H., Huan, T. C., & Wu, C. C. (2011). Free time management contributes to better quality of life: a study of undergraduate students in Taiwan. Journal of Happiness Studies, 52(4), 561–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zelmek, A. W. (1959). A Changing America: at Work and Play. NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of TourismI-Shou UniversityKaohsiung City 840Taiwan
  2. 2.Department of Recreational Sport and Health promotionNational Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyNeipuTaiwan

Personalised recommendations