Where Is Dopamine and how do Immune Cells See it?: Dopamine-Mediated Immune Cell Function in Health and Disease

  • S. M. Matt
  • P. J. GaskillEmail author


Dopamine is well recognized as a neurotransmitter in the brain, and regulates critical functions in a variety of peripheral systems. Growing research has also shown that dopamine acts as an important regulator of immune function. Many immune cells express dopamine receptors and other dopamine related proteins, enabling them to actively respond to dopamine and suggesting that dopaminergic immunoregulation is an important part of proper immune function. A detailed understanding of the physiological concentrations of dopamine in specific regions of the human body, particularly in peripheral systems, is critical to the development of hypotheses and experiments examining the effects of physiologically relevant dopamine concentrations on immune cells. Unfortunately, the dopamine concentrations to which these immune cells would be exposed in different anatomical regions are not clear. To address this issue, this comprehensive review details the current information regarding concentrations of dopamine found in both the central nervous system and in many regions of the periphery. In addition, we discuss the immune cells present in each region, and how these could interact with dopamine in each compartment described. Finally, the review briefly addresses how changes in these dopamine concentrations could influence immune cell dysfunction in several disease states including Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, as well as the collection of pathologies, cognitive and motor symptoms associated with HIV infection in the central nervous system, known as NeuroHIV. These data will improve our understanding of the interactions between the dopaminergic and immune systems during both homeostatic function and in disease, clarify the effects of existing dopaminergic drugs and promote the creation of new therapeutic strategies based on manipulating immune function through dopaminergic signaling.

Graphical Abstract


Dopamine Catecholamine Neuroimmunology Drug abuse Immunopharmacology Neuropathogenesis 



We would like to state our tremendous appreciation to all the members of the Gaskill laboratory and the department of Pharmacology and Physiology for their insights and critical feedback during the preparation of this manuscript. This work was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Drug Abuse, DA039005 (PJG), as well as support from the Drexel University College of Medicine.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and PhysiologyDrexel University College of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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