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Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 217–232 | Cite as

Behavioral, Metabolic, and Immune Consequences of Chronic Alcohol or Cannabinoids on HIV/AIDs: Studies in the Non-Human Primate SIV Model

  • Patricia E. MolinaEmail author
  • Angela M. Amedee
  • Peter Winsauer
  • Steve Nelson
  • Gregory Bagby
  • Liz Simon
INVITED REVIEW

Abstract

HIV-associated mortality has been significantly reduced with antiretroviral therapy (ART), and HIV infection has become a chronic disease that frequently coexists with many disorders, including substance abuse (Azar et al. Drug Alcohol Depend 112:178–193, 2010; Phillips et al. J Gen Int Med 16:165, 2001). Alcohol and drugs of abuse may modify host-pathogen interactions at various levels including behavioral, metabolic, and immune consequences of HIV infection, as well as the ability of the virus to integrate into the genome and replicate in host cells. Identifying mechanisms responsible for these interactions is complicated by many factors, such as the tissue specific responses to viral infection, multiple cellular mechanisms involved in inflammatory responses, neuroendocrine and localized responses to infection, and kinetics of viral replication. An integrated physiological analysis of the biomedical consequences of chronic alcohol and drug use or abuse on disease progression is possible using rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a relevant model of HIV infection. This review will provide an overview of the data gathered using this model to show that chronic administration of two of the most commonly abused substances, alcohol and cannabinoids (Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), affect host-pathogen interactions.

Keywords

HIV SIV Alcohol Cannabinoids Immune system Metabolism 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for the outstanding veterinarian and technical support provided by Jason Dufour, DVM, Leslie Birke, DVM, Jean Carnal, Connie Porretta, Curtis Vande Stouwe, Rhonda Martinez, Amy Weinberg, Peter Lewis, and Jamie Hubbell. Analytical support for the studies was provided by the LSUHSC Comprehensive Alcohol Research Center Analytical Core Laboratory, and particularly Dr. Robert Siggins.

Funding

The authors have received support from: NIH/NIAAA P60 AA09803, NIH/NIDA 5 R01 DA030053.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia E. Molina
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Angela M. Amedee
    • 2
    • 4
  • Peter Winsauer
    • 3
    • 4
  • Steve Nelson
    • 4
  • Gregory Bagby
    • 1
    • 4
  • Liz Simon
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyLouisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Immunology, & ParasitologyLouisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA
  3. 3.Department of PharmacologyLouisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA
  4. 4.Alcohol and Drug Abuse Center of ExcellenceLouisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA

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