Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 428–442 | Cite as

Arboviral Encephalitides: Transmission, Emergence, and Pathogenesis

  • Bradley S. Hollidge
  • Francisco González-Scarano
  • Samantha S. SoldanEmail author


Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are of paramount concern as a group of pathogens at the forefront of emerging and re-emerging diseases. Although some arboviral infections are asymptomatic or present with a mild influenza-like illness, many are important human and veterinary pathogens causing serious illness ranging from rash and arthritis to encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. Here, we discuss arboviruses from diverse families (Flaviviruses, Alphaviruses, and the Bunyaviridae) that are causative agents of encephalitis in humans. An understanding of the natural history of these infections as well as shared mechanisms of neuroinvasion and neurovirulence is critical to control the spread of these viruses and for the development of effective vaccines and treatment modalities.


arbovirus Flavivirus Bunyaviridae Alphavirus encephalitis 


Acknowledgments and statement regarding conflicts of interest

This work was supported by PHS grants 1R01AI074626-01 and T32-NS07180. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradley S. Hollidge
    • 1
    • 2
  • Francisco González-Scarano
    • 1
    • 3
  • Samantha S. Soldan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Neuroscience Graduate GroupUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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